Apush Chapter 18

Mexican Cession1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
Fire-eatersrefers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America.
What were the advantages and disadvantages of popular sovereignty?Popular sovereignty makes states more stable, but they also reduce the risk of civil war in neighboring countries. Advantages of popular sovereignty include a better economy and better education. One of the disadvantages of popular sovereignty is that the majority is not always right.
Why was the Free-Soil party formed?it was formed because the Whigs and the democrats could not agree on the expansion of slavery in the west. It was formed to stop the expansion of slavery in the west., To protect slavery in new lands gained in the Mexican-American War.
Did the California Gold Rush make people rich? Explain.In the earliest days of the rush, claims yielding as much as $300 to $400 in a day were not uncommon.
Underground RailroadA secret cooperative network that aided fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or in Canada in the years before the abolition of slavery in the United States
Harriet TubmanAmerican abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Henry ClayA northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
John C. Calhoun(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
Daniel WebsterFamous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
What effect did Webster’s speech have?Daniel Webster’s Bunker Hill Speech embodied the beliefs of the time and restored American desire to fight for what was right.
William H. SewardA Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
Higher LawSenator William Seward’s doctrine that slavery should be excluded from the territories as contrary to a divine moral law standing above even the Constitution
How did William Seward contribute to the tension between North and South in 1850?William Seward finally took it upon himself to organize a rally against the Nebraska bill, since none had arisen spontaneously. The radical press, such as the National Era and the New York Tribune, and the local free-soil journals, condemned the bill
Compromise of 1850(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
What factors led to the acceptance of the Compromise of 1850?the 1850 Compromise was a series of bills aimed at resolving the territorial and slavery controversies arisen from the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). there were five laws which balanced the interests of the slave states of the South and the free states to the north. California was admitted as a free state; Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands west of the Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico; the Territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona and a portion of southern Nevada) was organized without any specific prohibition of slavery; the slave trade (but not slavery itself) was ended in the District of Columbia; and the stringent Fugitive Slave Law was passed, requiring all U.S. citizens to assist in the return of runaway slaves regardless of the legality of slavery in the specific states.
What was important about the election of 1852?The Election of 1852 turned out to be an indication of the future division of the US into what became known as “sectionalism.” The issue of slavery in the campaign was muted because of the recently passed Compromise of 1850. The Democrats could not agree on any of the major candidates so settled on Franklin Pierce as a dark horse candidate. The Whigs were also split and nominated Winfield Scott. A portion of the Whigs who could not support Scott nominated John Hale as the candidate of the Freesoil Party. It opposed the spread of slavery into the territories. This election would also be the last for the Whigs who would split up over the issue of slavery in the territories.
William WalkerA proslavery American adventurer from the South, he led an expedition to seize control on Nicaragua in 1855. He wanted to petition for annexation it as a new slave state but failed when several Latin American countries sent troops to oust him before the offer was made.
Explain the Ostend Manifesto, and what consequences it had.The Ostend Manifesto (1854) strongly suggested that the United States should take Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell.
Treaty of WanghiaThe first diplomatic agreement between China and America in history, signed on July 3, 1844. Since America signed as a nation interested in trade instead of colonization, it was rewarded with extraordinary amount of trading power.
Caleb CushingAmerican diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia with China in 1844
Commodore PerryAfter arriving with a fleet of warships, he gets Japan to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) opening some ports to America. Helps to end Japanese isolation
Commodore Matthew C. Perrycommanded a fleet of warships sent to Japan. In a judicious display of force and tact, he persuaded the Japanese in 1854 to sign a treaty opening the door to trade, beginning an epochal relationship between Japan and the Western world.
Is China or Japan more important to American trade today?The trade from China is important to American trade today as they provide 50% of most things.
What was the reason for the Gadsen Purchase?The purpose of the purchase was to allow for the construction of a southern route for a transcontinental railroad. Another rationale for the purchase was to give Mexico more money in compensation for the small amount paid for the lands taken by the United States five years earlier in 1848 in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-American War.
Stephen A. DouglasA moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Why were northerners so opposed to popular sovereignty?The law violated Northerners’ notions of states’ rights, it infringed on civil liberties in the North.