Chapter 21 – The Americans

What does prohibition mean?It means that the manufacture, sell and transportation of alcoholic beverages were legally prohibited.
What does speakeasy mean?Underground areas (bars and such) that allowed people to speak freely about licor and other matters.
What does bootlegger mean?People who illegally participated in the smuggling business of alcohol. The name comes from smuggling booze in their boots.
What is fundamentalism?It is the protestant movement that comes from the literal interpretation of the Bible.
Who was Clarence Darrow?He was the most famous trial lawyer in the 1920’s. He defended John Scopes in the monkey trial.
What was the Scopes Trial?It was the trial of a school biology teacher who imparted evolution. The trial represented the fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools and in American society.
What was the Volstead Act?The Volstead Act created the prohibition bureau to enforce the prohibition of alcohol in 1919. However, it was overfunded so it was impossible to control the entire coast.
What is a flapper?It was the new woman of the 1920’s who was not going to continue following classic values. She rebelled against wearing conventional clothes and spoke her mind.
What does double standard mean in the context of the 1920’s?It means that society judged women under a different set of conditions from that of men. Women could not talk about sex, wear short skirts and discuss other mundane matters.
Who was Charles A Lindbergh?He was the first man to complete a solo flight over the Atlantic.
Who was George Gershwin?He was a Jewish composer who combined concert music with American Jazz, producing a new American sound.
Who was Georgia O’Keefe?She was a American painter who captured the grandeur of New York with intensely colored canvases. US painters started focusing more and more on their nation.
Who was Sinclair Lewis?He was the first American to win a Nobel prize in literature. He ridiculed Americans for their conformity and materialism.
Who was F. Scott Fitzgerald?He was one of the most famous American writers. He revealed the negative side of the gaiety and freedom of the era in his book The Great Gatsby. He portrayed wealthy people living imperiled lives.
Who was Edna St. Vincent Millay?She was an American writer who wrote poems celebrating youth and freedom from traditional constraints.
Who was Ernest Hemingway?He was the most famous expatriate author. He criticized the glorification of war.
Who was Zora Neal Hurston?She was one of the first black women to get to the top in literature. She migrated to the north and obtained a university degree.
Who was James Weldon Johnson?He was a Florida lawyer who fought for the rights of African Americans. He wrote the lyrics of the black national anthem.
Who was Marcus Garvey?He was the founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. He spread a message of black pride and recruited many followers. He was Jamaican.
What was the Harlem Renaissance?It was a literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture.
Who was Claude McKay?He was a novelist and poet who urged African Americans to fight prejudice and discrimination.
Who was Langston Hughes?He was the UNIA’s best poet. He described the difficulties that African Americans faced in the working class.
Who was Paul Robeson?He was the son of slave. He became a major dramatic actor who performed in various plays.
Who was Louis Armstrong?He was the most influential musician in the history of jazz.
Who was Duke Ellington?He was one of best composers of the 20th century. He went on to improvise jazz and scat with Louis Armstrong.
Who was Bessie Smith?She was the most talented vocalist of the 1920’s.
Why was heavy funding needed to enforce the Volstead Act? ****It was needed because alcohol was being smuggled through the coasts. In addition, many people were involved in the bootlegging business.
Explain the circumstances and outcome of the trial of the biology teacher John Scopes?****It was a witch hunt. John Scopes was just a biology teacher who wanted to impart lessons on evolution. Even though Bryan accepted that the Bible could not be interpreted literally, Scopes was still found guilty.
What key social, economic, and technological changes of the 1920’s affected women’s marriages and family life?****The family dynamics had changed completely. Women had taken jobs only accessible to women during WW1 and they started rebelling against traditional constraints.
Cite examples of the flaws of American philosophy that authors in the 1920’s attacked in their writing? ****American writers attacked the love that Americans had for goods and their vain lives.
What do the great migration and the growth of the NAACP and UNIA reveal about the African American experience in this period? ****African American grew prouder of the origins and felt that they needed to tell their stories.