Chapter 4 Mastering Environmental Science

Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ________.intraspecific competition
By definition, parasites ________ their host.feed on and harm
Herbivory is actually a type of ________.predation
Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a ________ association.symbiotic
What kind of relationship exists between multiple organisms who seek the same limited resource?competition
Many wild orchids cannot be successfully dug up and transplanted because they need the native mycorrhizae (a fungus) in the soil to survive. What kind of interaction is this?mutualism
How does predation differ from parasitism?Parasites rarely kill their host, while predators kill their prey.
________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars.producers
Zooplankton-eating fish are ________.secondary consumers
The energy content and biomass of ________ is lowest in any food webtop carnivores
What kind of interaction occurs when two cardinals (birds of the same species) are trying to build a nest in the same tree?intraspecific competition
Two species of lizard live on the same tree and consume the same sorts of food. Regardless, neither species is in direct competition with the other. The key to this scenario is that one of the species is nocturnal; the other is diurnal. What is this called?resource partitioning
What two types of relationships exhibit symbiosis?mutualism and parasatism
How much energy is available to the third trophic level, a secondary consumer, if its prey in the second trophic level, a primary consumer, is only able to obtain 10% of the available energy of the first trophic level?1%
What moves through the community from one trophic level to another as organisms feed on one another?matter and energy
What potential energy-bearing compound is produced through photosynthesis and made available for consumers?carbohydrates
Which statement is an accurate description of a keystone species?A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance.
Lichen is often the first organism to appear in an area that has had all life stripped from it because of some disturbance. What is lichen in this regard?a pioneer species
If you wanted to represent the relative importance of the trophic levels in a food chain, the most accurate way to do so would be a graph in the form of __________.a pyramid of energy
If a human consumes both plant and animal products, then he or she is considered a(n) __________.omnivore
What does the diagram illustrate?

a.Deserts and tropical rainforests normally occur within a few meters on one another.
b. Boreal forests and tropical dry forest have identical climates.
c. Biomes are determined primarily by precipitation and temperature.
d. Tundra and desert both share a hot climate.
Biodiversity does not vary with climate.

C. Biomes are determined primarily by precipitation and temperature
Secondary succession ________.occurs after a fire or flood
________ terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity.tropical rainforest
Taiga and tundra both ________.have comparatively low temperatures throughout the year
________ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest.deer
Techniques to eradicate zebra mussels ________.introducing new predators and diseases
Kelp _____.suffers intense herbivory from sea urchins
Global climate change may produce major shifts in biomes for any given location because ________.mean temperature, precipitation and salinity will change
Human activities, including fossil fuel combustion, farming, and deforestation, are known to increase the levels of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in our atmosphere. Measurable warming of Earth due to these greenhouse gases can alter ecosystem dynamics. In addition to the direct climatic effects on organisms within biomes, warming can lower levels of sea ice and increase precipitation in arctic areas. Global warming also can increases sea surface temperatures, which can subsequently melt permafrost in the tundra and increase the intensity of hurricanes in vulnerable areas. Within communities, climatic change can shift interdependent species “out-of-sync,” potentially causing indirect loss of species.

Some models of climate change for North America predict that the grassland regions of the prairie states will become warmer and dryer. This would result in ________.

the need to develop varieties of agricultural crops that tolerate desert conditions
What two factors exert the greatest influence over a terrestrial biome?annual average temperature and precipitation
Which of the following biomes has the most annual rainfall?temperate rainforest
Which of the following biomes has acidic soil with few nutrients and little organic matter?a tropical rainforest
This biome often features wildfires due to extensive dry seasons.chaparral
Which biome features soil that contains a layer of permafrost?tundra
Which type of feedback loop acts to resist change in natural systems, thereby enhancing system stability and promoting conditions favorable for life?negative feedback
Daniel Simberloff states that non-native species are responsible for which of the following?modifying fire regimes
Mark Davis argues that non-natives rarely threaten natives with extinction. Davis would further say that:None of the thousands of native plant species in North America has ever gone totally extinct due to a non-native species.
Which of the following statements would the two authors agree on?many non-native species are not harmful
Simberloff mentions Mediterranean cheatgrass as one example of a non-native species that has affected millions of acres. If Davis were the scientist talking to reporters, how might he frame the issue?Cheatgrass is causing regional declines of native plant communities.
A new non-native species has recently been discovered in your area of North America. What information about the species would suggest the need for immediate action?The non-native species occurs in lakes.
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.producers
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.detritivore
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.secondary consumer
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.primary consumer
A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____.tertiary consumer
What does the left y-axis of the graph represent?number of breeding pairs per 100 acres
What does the blue graph line represent?number of species
After 20 years, what was the total number of bird species?14
In which year was the density of birds greatest?105
In which period did the number of species increase most rapidly?0 to 20 years
What factor is most likely to have caused the change in the number of bird species that occurred between years 30 and 60?increasing number of bird habitats
Which of the following statements best describes the bird populations during the period from 100 to 160 years?The number of species slowly increased, while the number of breeding pairs reached a peak and then slowly declined.
The climax, or final stage, of old-field succession is an oak-hickory forest, which is usually well established after 160 years. What happens to the diversity of bird species after 160 years?The answer cannot be determined from this graph.
Why do we classify lionfish populations near the eastern United States as an invasive species? What suggests that these new populations are not an expansion of the lionfish’s natural range?Lionfish are native to the tropical Pacific. There are no natural water routes of warm water between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Based upon what we are learning about the lionfish diet, what is most likely going to happen to Caribbean coral reefs invaded by lionfish?There will be fewer algae-eating fish. More algae will grow over and damage corals.
What characteristics of lionfish contribute to their ability to spread and become established in new areas?A single lionfish female may produce up to 2 million eggs a year. The eggs float for up to a month, spreading the lionfish populations.
How did the fish biologists determine the diet of lionfish in the regions where the lionfish have invaded?Biologists examined the contents of the stomachs of lionfish caught in the wild.
Based upon what we are learning about invasive lionfish populations in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of the United States, these lionfish populations __________.cannot be eliminated by any means currently known
Process of Science: Determining Zebra Mussels’ Impacts on Fish Communities (The Science Behind the Story)
Part A
decreased, increased
open water, littoral zone
open water, littoral zone
Part Bx axis, y axis,
millions, thousands
before
decreased, increased
support
The Verkhoyansk Mountain Range is located in which type of climate?subarctic (very cold winters)
Where is elevation greatest in Russia?in the south
What is the elevation of most of Russia?0-199 meters
Which of the following features explains why southwestern Russia has a relatively mild climate?All of the above are correct.
Select Natural Regions. Adjust the transparency sliders as needed. Lake Baikal is located in which natural region?mountain
Legislation for limiting wild bison in Montana is being proposed where?in the montana state legislature
You are on your first trip to Montana and hope to see a wild bison. Where should you go?Yellowstone National Park
How do bison and cattle differ?they graze in different ways
Which of the following is true?The federal government charges less than most private landowners for grazing a cow-calf pair.
You are a member of the Gros Ventre tribe, sharing the same view as the majority of your fellow tribe members and other tribes. How do you feel about the proposed legislation restricting wild bison?you strongly oppose it
You are a Montana cattle rancher. What disease are you most concerned about your cattle’s catching from wild bison?brucellosis