Cancer Biology Questions

Which cancer originates from connective tissue?Osteogenic sarcoma
Carcinoma refers to abnormal cell proliferation originating from which tissue origin?Epithelial cells
Carcinoma in situ is characterized by which changes?Cells remain localized in the glandular or squamous cells
Which term is used to describe a muscle cell showing a reduced ability to form new muscle while appearing highly disorganized?Anaplasia
What are tumor cell markers?Hormones, enzymes, antigens, and antibodies that are produced by cancer cells
The function of the tumor cell marker is toScreen individuals at high risk for cancer
Which statement supports the hypothesis that intestinal polyps are benign neoplasms and the first stage in the development of colon cancer?an accumulation of mutations in specific genes is required for the development of cancer
Autocrine stimulation is the ability of cancer cells toSecrete growth factors that stimulate their own growth
Apoptosis is anormal mechanism for cells to self-destruct when growth is excessive
Many cancers create a mutation of ras. ras is anintracellular-signaling protein that regulates cell growth
Oncogenes are genes that are capable ofundergoing mutation that directs the synthesis of proteins to accelerate the rate of tissue proliferation
Burkitt lymphomas designate a chromosome that has a piece of chromosome 8 fused to a piece of chromosome 14. This is an example of which mutation of normal genes to oncogenes?Chromosome translocation
In childhood neuroblastoma, the N-myc oncogene undergoes which type of mutation of normal gene to oncogene?Gene amplification
What aberrant change causes the abnormal growth in retinoblastoma?The tumor-suppressor gene is turned off
Two “hits” are required to inactivate tumor-suppressor genes becaueeach allele must be altered, and each person has two copies, or alleles, of each gene, one from each parent
The ras gene converts from a proto-oncogene to an oncogene byaltering one or more nucleotide base pairs
How do cancer cells use the enzyme telomerase?To switch on the telomerase to enable cells to divide indefinitely
What are characteristics of benign tumors?Benign tumors include the suffix -oma
Which terms represent the correct nomenclature for benign and malignant tumors of adipose tissue, respectively?Lipoma, liposarcoma
What is the major virus involved in the development of cervical cancer?Human papillomavirus
The papanicolaou (Pap) test is used to screen for which cancer?Cervical
What is the skin-related health risk induced by some types of chemotherapy?Infection
Which cancers are all associated with chronic inflammation?Colon, thyroid gland, and urinary bladder
Chronic inflammation causes cancer byreleasing compounds such as reactive oxygen species that promote mutations
Inherited mutations that predispose to cancer are almost invariably what kind of gene?Tumor-suppressor genes
What is the consequence for cells when the functioning TP53 gene is lost as a result of mutation?Cells escape apoptosis
Which gastrointestinal tract condition can be an outcome of both chemotherapy and radiation therapy?Stomatitis
What is the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in cell metastasis?To develop new blood vessels to feed cancer cells
It has been determined that a tumor is in stage 2. What is the meaning of this finding?cancer is locally invasive
Which statement is true regarding pain and cancer?Pain is generally associated with late-stage cancer
Which cancer may be treated with radiation delivered by brachytherapy?Cervical
The survival rate for stage IV Hodgkin disease can be as high as70%
What is the cause of anemia in a patient diagnosed with pancreatic cancerMalabsorption of iron
By what process do cancer cells multiply in the absence of external growth signals?Autocrine stimulation
What is the role of caretaker genes?Maintenance of genomic integrity
in a normal, nonmutant state, an oncogene is referred to as aproto-oncogene
Which statement is true regarding pleomorphic cells?they are a result of anaplasia
What is the most commonly reported symptom of cancer treatment?Fatigue
The most common side of metastasis for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is which location?Bones
Which statement concerning benign tumors is true?The cells are well-differentiated
Chemotherapytakes advantage of specific vulnerabilities in specific cancer cells
Radiationis used to kill cancer cells while minimizing damage to normal structures
Stagingprovides a framework to determine treatment
Angiogenesisis the process of cancer cell growth
Target agentis guided by molecular analysis in specific diseases
Cervical cancerHPV
Kaposi sarcomaHuman herpesvirus (HHV)
Liver cancerHepatis B virus (HBV)
Stomach cancerHelicobacter pylori