Chapter 1-4 Quiz

Describe religious practices in Africa prior to the sixteenth centuryMost West Africans believed in the presence of multiple gods
Why did the people of West Africa welcome European traders in the middle of the fifteenth century?They were hoping to evade the trade monopoly of the northern empires
In what ways did the Catholic Church serve as a unifying force in Western Europe from late classical times to the Renaissance?The Church provided a common understanding of God
What characterizes the political transformation associated with the Renaissance?Monarchs formed alliances with wealthy merchants and urban artisans
What group comprised most of the population of Europe in 1450?peasants
How did northern Native Americans seek to appease the spiritual world?With religious rituals
What made regional trade networks possible among northern Native Americans before the arrival of Europeans?Specialized economies
Why did large-scale Native American cultures emerge in the Mississippi Valley of North America around 1000 A.D.?maize spread to the Mississippi River Valley around that time
Why were Hernan Cortes and his fellow conquistadors able to defeat Moctezuma’s army?the Europeans had an invisible ally: disease
Why did the maritime slave trade expand significantly after 1550?Europeans were setting up sugar plantations in Brazil and the West Indies
Why did Italian merchants join the efforts of Portuguese mariners in searching for an Atlantic route to India in the fifteenth century?the rising power of the Ottoman Empire restricted their overland access to Asian trade
Why did migrants from the Asian continent disperse across the Americas thousands of years agohunting and gathering practices drove them across the continent
What advantage did the Five Nations of the Iroquois have in the seventeenth century?their strategic location in central New York allowed them to dominate the region
What characterizes Dutch ambitions in the Americas in the seventeenth century?they were looking for trading opportunities
Why did the fur trade of North America expand so quickly from the late sixteenth into the seventeenth century?furs of mink, otter, and beaver were in great demand in Europe
Describe the status of Africans in Virginia prior to 1660personal initiative and religion were as important as race in determining social status
Why did Maryland settlers challenge Lord Baltimore in the 1630’s and 1640’s?the settlers insisted on the right to a representative assembly
Why did the Portuguese not draw on local populations for the labor needed on Brazilian plantations?smallpox and other diseases had ravaged the local Indian populations
Why had the Dutch and Flemish provinces of the Spanish Netherlands grown so prosperous by the middle of the sixteenth century?the Dutch and Flemish had specialized in textile manufacturing and trade with Portuguese
Why was the Columbian Exchange so important?
Why did Bacon’s Rebellion occur?impoverished white freeholders and tenants who wanted land were opposed by wealthy planters
What characterizes Metacom’s War?resulted in the destruction of the Indian tribes
Why did Puritans favor local control of government?they wanted to avoid oppressive taxes levied by a distant government
How did the Spanish colonizers manage to tap the enormous wealth of Mesoamerica and the Andes?by capitalizing on preexisting systems of tribute and labor discipline
What development was most responsible for the growth of the northern maritime economy?the wealth of the British sugar colonies
Why did merchants in the Atlantic trade system of the eighteenth century use bills of exchange?the documents allowed colonists to sell their goods to one merchant and buy from another
How did slavery in the Chesapeake differ from slavery in South Carolina?the slave population in the Chesapeake increased naturally through reproduction
Why did the South Atlantic System bring the most wealth to Britain?American goods had to pass through England before being sold in Europe
How did the Treaty of Utrecht change the balance of power between the English, French, and native tribes after 1713?Britain obtained access through Albany to the western Indian trade
Why did William of Orange’s ascension to the throne of England mean a new era of warfare in Europe?William of Orange was committed to fighting a war to establish English and Protestant dominance
How did the Glorious Revolution change imperial governance of the colonies?by granting the colonies increased self-government
What does the response in Massachusetts Bay to the Navigation Acts represent?American resistance to mercantilist policies
The system of salutary neglect that allowed the colonies to prosper with lessened interference from the British was facilitated by the political system under which leader?Sir Robert Walpole
How did the assemblies in Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania restrict the power of the royal governor?they refused to provide the governors with a permanent annual salary
What was an effect of the increasing importance of the maritime economy in the northern colonies?it created a society increasingly divided by levels of wealth
How did Pennsylvania differ from most other colonies?it guaranteed religious freedom
What was the central legacy of the Great Awakening?the movement of religious authority from educated ministers to the believer’s direct experience of God
How did the ideas and thoughts of George Whitefield and other ministers of the Great Awakening spread through the colonies?printers such as Benjamin Franklin published his sermons and many other writings
Describe the eighteenth century movement called Deism?it was a way of thinking about God
What was the central premise of the Enlightenment?human reason had the power to observe, understand, and improve the world
Why did the number of printshops explode after 1695 in the English colonies?the British government let the long standing Licensing Act lapse
Why were the American colonies a popular destination for Scots-Irish immigrants in the early eighteenth century?they saw their economic opportunity sapped in Ireland
Why did the Middle colonies grow prosperous in the early 1700’s?growing demand for wheat
What was the “household mode of production” used by farmers in the New England?a system of community exchange in which families swapped labor and goods
Assess the impact of the consumer revolution in the 1750’s and 1760’s.american colonies incurred a trade deficit
What was the French and Indian War known as in Europe?Seven Years’ War
Why did the Baptist sect attract African Americans?the Baptist message declared all people to be equal in God’s eyes
Marriage in New England under eighteenth century English common law did what?gave the husband legal ownership of the bride’s land and personal property