BIOL 1408 Unit 5 Exam Study Guide Professor Petty

Which of the following people conducted the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?Hershey and Chase
One type of virus that infects bacteria is called aphage
When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm?only the DNA
The way that genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterium is most like the way thata drug is injected with a hypodermic needle
The monomers of DNA and RNA arenucleotides
Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?DNA uses the sugar deoxyribose
Which of the following statements regarding RNA is false?RNA uses the sugar dextrose
The shape of a DNA molecule is most likea twisted rope ladder
Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is true?the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine.
DNA replicationuses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand
If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, then the corresponding strand would beGCCATG
The copying mechanism of DNA is most liketaking a picture of yourself and of your reflection in a mirror
When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains50% of the parent DNA
Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve toshorten time necessary for DNA replication
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand?DNA polymerase
Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5′ to 3′ direction?because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3′ end of the growing molecule
Which of the following options best depicts the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component?DNA —> RNA —> protein
The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is calledtranscription
The “one gene-one polypeptide” theory states thatthe function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific polypeptide
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is calleda mutation
Consider the following sentence: “The dog did not eat.” Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base substitution mutation?The doe did not eat.
Consider the following sentence. “The dog did not eat.” Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base frameshift mutation?The did idn ote at.
A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a/anmutagen
A protein coat enclosing a viral genome is known as a/ancapsid
Which of the following statements characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection?the cycle typically leads to the lysis of the host cell
Which of the following statements is false?the lysogenic cycle typically results in the rapid lysis of all infected cells
Viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a/anprophage
The envelope of a mumps virushelps the virus enter the cell
Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false?herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell’s mitochondria
Which of the following statements about plant viruses is false?there are many successful ways to rid infected plants of a virus
Which of the following statements regarding viral diseases is false?very new few human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great
The 2009 H1N1 flu virusevolved through the genetic reshuffling of viruses that infect humans, birds, and pigs
What kind of virus is HIV?a retrovirus
Which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template?RNA polymerase
HIV does the greatest damage towhite blood cells
How do viroids harm the plants that are infected with them?by altering the plants’ growth
Which of the following statements about treatment or prevention of a prion infection is true?there is no known treatment or cure for prion infections
In the 1920s, Frederick Griffith conducted an experiment in which he mixed the dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells of a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. Which of the following processes of bacterial DNA transfer does this experiment demonstrate?transformation
Transductionoccurs when a phage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another
Conjugationis the direct transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another
Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteriaincrease their genetic diversity
A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus via email is most like which of the following processes?transduction
When a bacterial cell with a chromosome-borne F factor conjugates with another bacterium, how is the transmitted donor DNA incorporated into the recipient’s genome?it is substituted for the equivalent portion of the recipient’s chromosome by the process of crossing over
In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried onR plasmids
Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture
What nucleotide sequence would be found on the partner DNA stand of the strand shown?TGACA
Biotechnologyhas been around since the dawn of civilization
When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known asrecombinant DNA
The production of multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA definesgene cloning
In the process of human gene cloning using plasmids, the bacterial plasmidis used as the vector
When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid, and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation
_____ are a major source of restriction enzymes.bacterial cells
Restriction enzymescut DNA at specific sites
“Sticky ends” areDNA fragments with single-stranded ends
The feature of “sticky ends” that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability toform hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA
After DNA fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base pairing, the union can be made permanent by the “pasting” enzymeDNA ligase
Which of the following is the best definition of a genomic library?a collection of cloned DNA fragments that includes an organism’s entire genome
Genomic libraries can be constructed using either bacterial plasmids or what other vector?bacteriophages
The enzyme that converts information stored in RNA to information stored in DNA isreverse transcriptase
The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes isescherichia coli
The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is thathuman insulin is less likely to cause harmful side effects than cow, pig, or horse, insulin
A vaccine works bystimulating the immune system
Which of the following statements about DNA technology is false?DNA technology is now used to create cells that can identify and kill cancer cells
Golden Rice is golden in color because it is rich inbeta-carotene
A transgenic animal isan animal containing a gene from another organism, typically of another species
Which of the following genetically modified organisms has not been developed by genetic engineers (at least, not yet)?transgenic rice with genes for milk proteins
Which of the following has not been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified (GM) organisms?the fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage
In order for gene therapy to be permanent in the patient being treated,the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply
Genetically modifying _____ cells may directly affect future generations.gamete-forming
What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?DNA profiling
If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair, or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by _____, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.PCR
Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of theirsize
Which of the following statements regarding repetitive DNA is false?Repetitive DNA is identical in all humans
What is the smallest number of cells needed to perform a successful DNA profile?20
Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?a very close match in the DNA profile
Which of the following statements about genome sequencing is false?Most of the genomes that have been sequenced to date are eukaryotes
Which of the following statements about genomics is false?DNA technology limits genomic studies to prokaryotes
Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?98.5%
The type of repetitive DNA composed of sequences of large repeated units is often associated withtransposable elements
Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are calledtransposable elements
Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?long stretches of repetitive DNA are prominent at centromeres and ends of chromosomes
Why is the whole-genome shotgun method currently the tool of choice for analyzing genomes?it is fast and inexpensive
Which of the following statements regarding proteomics is true?proteomics and genomics allow scientists to study life in an ever-increasing reductive approach
The number of proteins in humansis much greater than the number of genes
Genome sequence analysis suggests that Neanderthalscould not speak
Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?98.8%
Which of the following is an example of a transgenic organism?a human given a corrected human blood-clotting gene
Blue-footed boobies have webbed feet and are comically clumsy when they walk on land. Evolutionary scientists view these feet asthe outcome of a trade-off: webbed feet perform poorly on land, but are very helpful in the diving for food
The core theme of biology, which explains both the unity and diversity of life, isevolution
Aristotle believed thatspecies are fixed (permanent) and perfect
Darwin found that many of the species on the Galapagos islandswere identical to south american species
Lyell’s book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S. Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?earth’s surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting
Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin’s?Wallace
Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics
During the 1950s, a scientist named Lysenko tried to solve the food shortages in the Soviet Union by breeding wheat that could grow in Siberia. He theorized that if individual wheat plants were exposed to cold, they would develop additional cold tolerance and pass it to their offspring. Based on the ideas of artificial and natural selection, do you think this project worked as planned?No, because there was no process of selection based on inherited traits. Lysenko assumed that exposure could induce a plant to develop additional cold tolerance and that this tolerance would be passed to the plant’s offspring.
Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced byartificial selection
Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics
Which of the following assumptions or observations is not part of Darwin’s idea of natural selection?Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance.
Which of the following thinkers argued that much of human suffering was the result of human populations increasing faster than food supply, an argument that later influenced Charles Darwin’s ideas of natural selection?Thomas Malthus
A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait.
Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism’s fitness.
Which of the following would prevent an organism from becoming part of the fossil record when it dies?It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi.
Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?The currently available fossil record shows that the first life-forms were eukaryotes.
Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?geographic distribution
Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species’ early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples ofhomology
Which of the following represents a pair of homologous structures?the wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale
What evidence is used to determine the branching sequence of an evolutionary tree?anatomical or molecular homologous structures
Darwin was the first person to draw an evolutionary tree, a diagram that representsevidence-based hypotheses regarding our understanding of patterns of evolutionary descent
A population isa group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed
Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs whena population’s allele frequencies change over a span of generations
The ultimate source of all new alleles ismutation
Which of the following conditions would tend to make the Hardy-Weinberg equation more accurate for predicting the genotype frequencies of future generations in a population of a sexually reproducing species?little gene flow with surrounding populations
Imagine that you are studying a very large population of moths that is isolated from gene flow. A single gene controls wing color. Half of the moths have white-spotted wings (genotype WW or Ww) and half of the moths have plain brown wings (ww). There are no new mutations, individuals mate randomly, and there is no natural selection on wing color. How will p, the frequency of the dominant allele, change over time?p will neither increase nor decrease; it will remain more or less constant under the conditions described
Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is calledthe bottleneck effect
In populations of the greater prairie in Illinois, genetic diversity waslost through genetic drift and restored by gene flow
A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only 10 remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck and a loss of genetic diversity
Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light-years away from Earth. The mission is successful, and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and the group’s gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?founder effect
Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced bygene flow
Which of the following statements best describes the true nature of natural selection?Only the strongest survive
Which of the following will tend to produce adaptive changes in populations?natural selection
An elk herd is observed over many generations. Most of the full-grown bull elk have antlers of nearly the same size, although a few antlers that are significantly larger or smaller than this average size. The average antler size remains constant over the generations. Which of the following effects probably accounts for this situation?stabilizing selection
A group of dog breeders is trying to design and develop an ideal dog. They want a dog with a gentle disposition, black fur, long ears, short legs, and a strong sense of smell. Which of the following comments from fellow dog breeders represents the biggest challenge they are likely to face?There are breeds with long ears and breeds with short legs, but no breeds with both.
A farmer decides to go into the business of raising trout for tourists who enjoy fishing. She builds six trout ponds and stocks each of them with trout from genetically identical stock. Her friends tell her that because she started each bond with just a few trout, she has created a bottleneck effect and her trout populations are likely to become genetically different rapidly. Which of the following statements about her trout is likely true?Because the ponds are different and the populations are likely to experience different mutations, the populations will likely diverge evolutionarily, but only over many generations.
Which of the following statements about adaptation is true?An individual that has learned how to survive cold winters has become adapted to the cold
Some butterflies can ingest toxic chemicals from the milkweed plants they feed on and then can store those chemicals in their body. Because toxins stored in the butterflies are toxic to birds, the birds avoid eating the butterflies. Which of the following is the best explanation for this situation?Any butterfly allele that allowed milkweed toxin storage would be likely to persist because butterflies that had it were more likely to survive.
Which of the following statements regarding fins on fishes is true?Fins are an adaptation that aid in swimming
A news article discussing the evolution of domestic dogs from wolves included this statement: “On its way from pack-hunting carnivore to fireside companion, dogs learned to love-or at least live on-wheat, rice, barley, corn, and potatoes.” What is a more scientifically accurate way to state what happened with dogs?Dogs mutated to be able to eat wheat, rice, barley, corn, and potatoes.
Which of the following statements represents a probable explanation for differences among pupfish populations?The isolated populations had restricted gene pools
The variation in gene pools among the 30 pupfish populations occurred through an evolutionary mechanism calledthe bottleneck effect
If, in one populations of pupfish all of the individuals have a blood pigment that is extraordinarily effective at carrying oxygen, but this trait is not seen in any of the other populations, what likely happened?Because oxygen was low where these pupfish lived, a new allele for an effective blood pigment arose.