Chapter 20 21 Lymphatic System and Immunity Pearson Marieb Anatomy and Physiology

A “nonself” substance that can provoke an immune response is called a(n)Antigen
Active artificially acquired immunity is a result ofVaccination
Complement proteins work byForming pores in the membranes of target cells
Cytotoxic T cells kill target cellsThrough insertion of perforins into the target’s membrane
Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus areT lymphocytes
Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteriaLysozyme
The immune cell is able to respond quickly after any subsequent encounter with the same antigenMemory cell
These molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages and result in a feverPyrogens
This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self-from nonself-antigensAutoimmune disease
When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hypermia, and swelling it is an indication thatInflammation is occuring
Which cell does NOT have a direct role in phagocytosis?NK cells
Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response?Helper T cells
Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells?Natural killer cells
Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense?Mucous membranes
Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?It occurs much more than a primary response.
Which type of molecule is produced by virus infected cells to communicate to noninfected cells the presence of a virus?Interferon
Which of the following is NOT a surface barrier to pathogen influx?Complement cascade
Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?Opsonization
The process that begins when a helper T cell binds to a class II MHC protein on a displaying cell is known asCostimulation
All of the following are examples of autoimmune disorders, EXCEPTSickle-cell anemia
Which of the following is NOT an innate defense mechanism of the body?B lymphocytes
Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response?Release of leukocytosis-inducing factor
In the respiratory burst, ____ are released, which have a potent cell-killing abilityFree radicals
Leukotrienes causeDilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area
Toll-like receptors are found onMacrophages
Interferons can be used to treat all of the following, EXCEPTMuscular dystrophy
All of the following are functions of interferons, EXCEPT that_____They only occur naturally
Which of the following minerals needed fro bacterial reproduction do both the liver and spleen sequester during a fever?Zinc
Which hypersensitivity is caused by T lymphocytes:Delayed
Without _______ there is no adaptive immune responseT lymphocytes
Left subclavian veinInto which blood vessel will lymph flow if it starts at the red arrow?
cytotoxic TThe cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the ________ cells.
Tonsils________ are large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.
PlasmaThe cells responsible for the production of circulating immunoglobulins are ________ cells.
Bone MarrowStem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the
NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer cells by a specific antigen on their cell membrane.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Natural Killer (NK) cells?
-NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer cells by a specific antigen on their cell membrane.
– NK cells attack transplanted organs.
-NK cells induce the target cell to undergo “apoptosis” (cell suicide).
-NK cells attack infected or cancerous cells.
interferonsWhat innate internal defenses work by interfering with viral replication?
The phagocytes recognize molecules on pathogens not normally found on body cells.How do phagocytes recognize foreign cells or bacteria?
complement proteinsWhich of the innate defense mechanisms can lyse bacteria and mark cells for phagocytosis?
antibodies and complement proteinsWhat can act as opsonins on bacteria, thus enhancing phagocytosis?
NKThe cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.
passive immunizationIn an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of?
antigen-presenting cellsClass II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?
class II MHC proteinsWhich class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens?
CD8Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types (that are destined to become T cells)?
all nucleated cellsWhat types of cells display protein fragments produced by the cancer within them?
CD8Which major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
cytotoxic T lymphocytesWhich defense cells can specifically identify and directly kill disease cells?
cytotoxic TWhen an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a ________ cell.
IgEWhich class of immunoglobulins sensitizes cells to allergens?
innate external defensesTears and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?
innate internal defensesPhagocytotic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?
plasma B cellsWhat cells make antibodies?
antigenic determinantWhat is the name of the unique area (specific region) that a lymphocyte recognizes and binds to?
humoral immunityWhat type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?
cellular immunityIf a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?
Cytotoxic T cellsCancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?
Helper T CellsB cells are primarily activated by the activities of
bone marrow and thymusWhich of the following are primary lymphoid organs?
white pulp of the spleenWhich of the following areas in a secondary lymphoid organ allows intimate contact between blood and the lymphocytes?
deep in the cortexWhere in the lymph node do the T cells first encounter antigens presented by dendritic cells?
germinal centers of the cortexWhere in the lymph node do the B cells first encounter antigens presented by dendritic cells?
Peyer’s patchesCollections of lymphoid tissues, called MALT, are strategically placed throughout the respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary systems. Which one of these is located at the end of the small intestine?
thymusThere is a decrease in our ability to fight infection as we age. Which lymphoid organ may have a role in this decline?
lymphocytesThe lymphoid tissue of the spleen (“white pulp”) contains many __________.
right armWhich of these organs does not drain its lymph into the thoracic duct? -left leg
– right leg
– left arm
– right arm
BThe cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ________ cells.
cytotoxic TLymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.
naturally acquired activeImmunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.
IgGImmunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are
False( T or F ) Lymph is important in transporting carbohydrates.
False( T or F ) The right lymphatic drains 3/4 of the body.
submandibular, cervical, axillary, inguinalList places large clusters of lymph nodes are found
lymphocytesThe white pulp of the spleen is important because it contains?
Because it provides a physical and chemical barrier to pathogensWhy is the skin called the “first line of defense”?
kupffer cellsWhich of the following is a type of fixed macrophage?
a. kupffer cells
b. leukocytes
c. T cells
d. monocytes
helper T cellsWhich T cell is responsible for stimulating B cells?
plasma cellWhich of the following cells makes and releases antibodies?
Creating your own antibodies either by actually getting the illness or through a vaccineDefine active immunity
afferent lymphatic vesselsLymph vessels that conduct lymph into a lymph node are termed
maintain extracellular fluid balance, collect excess fluid from the interstitial space, defend the body against foreign cells and moleculesThe lymphatic system functions to?
False( T or F ) Lymphatic capillaries are less permeable than systemic capillaries.
intestinal, jugular, bronchomediastinal, lumbar, subclavianList lymphatic trunks
produce RBC in fetus, break down old RBCs and store Fe
, store platelets, surveillance of the immune system
List functions of the spleen
lymphatic are more permeable, lymphatic only move lymph toward the heart, detours through lymph glandsList the differences between lymphatic capillaries and systemic capillaries
False(T or F) Bacteria only live inside other cells
False(T or F) A lymph node contains fewer afferent lymphatic vessels than efferent.
ComplementWhich of the following are proteins which result in the formation of MAC?
FalseT or F: The production of antibodies against an antigen is an example of nonspecific immunity.
interferonWhat are antiviral proteins that also stimulate NK cells and macrophages?
FalseT/F: Immunity from getting a vaccine is an example of active naturally acquired immunity.
TrueT/F: Viruses only live inside other cells.
TrueT/F: Immunity to an infant via breast milk is an example of passive naturally acquired immunity.
return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular systemA major function of the lymphatic system is __________.
Peyer’s patchesAggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the wall of the ileum of the small intestine are __________.
the thymusCollections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that guard mucosal surfaces include all the following, EXCEPT __________.
spleenIn addition to its lymphoid function, this organ holds a reservoir of platelets.
reticular connective tissueThe lymphoid tissue’s structural framework of is composed of __________.
appendixThis structure, attached to the cecum, is in an ideal location to destroy bacteria before they breach the intestinal wall.
lymphatic capillaryWhat lymphatic structure absorbs excess tissue fluid?
lactealWhat lymphatic structure absorbs lipids in the intestine?
palatine tonsilsWhat lymphatic structures trap bacteria in the posterior oral cavity?
lymphocytesWhich of the following are located in the spleen’s white pulp?
capillaries, vessels, trunks, ductsWhich sequence best describes the flow of lymph through the lymphatic system?
It maintains blood volume and, hence, pressure.Which statement below describes the lymphatic system’s role in relation to the cardiovascular system?
It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?
They have fewer efferent vessels than afferent vessels.Which statement is true about lymph nodes?
a one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillariesWhich of the following best describes the arrangement of lymphatic vessels?
thymusWhich of the following is the major lymphoid organ that “trains” T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent?
lymph nodesWhich of the following are the principal lymphoid organs in the body?
the tonsilsThe lymphoid organ(s) located in the throat that defend(s) against invading bacteria coming in through the mouth and nose is (are) __________.
It is best to perform a splenectomy if the spleen is damaged in a car accident.Which of the following statements about the spleen is FALSE?
lymphaticsWhich of the following vessels transport fluid that leaks from the vascular system back into the blood?
CSFExcess tissue fluid in the brain drains into the __________.
red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touchLymphangitis presents itself as __________.
transport of chyleWhich of the following features is NOT common to both lymphatic collecting ducts and veins?
germinal centersWhen B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, the __________ of the lymphoid tissue enlarge(s).
in the medullary cordsWhere are plasma cells found in a lymph node?
lymph sinusesLarge lymph capillaries in a lymph node spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers are known as __________.
monocytesWhich of the following cells would NOT be found in a germinal center in a lymph node?
spleenWhich lymphatic structure may also be a site of erythrocyte production in the fetus?
white pulpAreas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as __________.
that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancerA sentinel node is the first lymph node __________.
FalseBlood plasma and lymph are identical except for their respective locations in the body.
lymphatic capillariesWhat part of the lymphatic system is most closely associated with capillary beds?
Lymphatic collecting vessels have endothelial flap valves, but veins do not.How are lymphatic collecting vessels different from veins?
subclavian veinsAll lymph is eventually returned to circulation via the __________.
delivery of nutrients to tissuesWhich of the following is NOT a function of lymphatic vessels?
produces antibodiesphagocytic cell
phagocytic cellfibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stroma
captures antigens and brings them back to lymph nodesproduces antibodies
fibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stromacaptures antigens and brings them back to lymph nodes
FalseReticular connective tissue is found in all lymphoid organs and tissues.
Lymph nodes produce lymph.Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of lymph nodes?
afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medullary sinuses, efferent vesselWhich of the following lists the correct order of lymph flow through the lymph node?
serve as a site of T cell maturationWhich of the following is NOT a role of the spleen?
After puberty, the thymus begins to decrease in size.Choose the true statement about the thymus.
gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynxThe main role of the tonsils is to __________.
the spleenWhich of the following is NOT a part of the mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)?
tonsilsExcept for the __________ and the spleen, the lymphoid organs are poorly developed at birth.
lymphatic capillarycollects excess tissue fluids
right lymphatic ductdrains right head and neck region
thoracic ductlarger of the two lymphatic ducts receiving lymph from all but the right head and neck region
lymphatic trunkdrains lymph from specific body areas
lymph nodehouses lymphatic cells and filters lymph
lymph noeslarge collections of bean-shaped structures in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions
appendixa tubular offshoot from the cecum
spleena filter and reservoir for the blood
thymuscauses T cells to become immunocompetent
tonsilsinvite infection to promote immunity
lymphatic collecting vesselssame three tunics as veins; the second-smallest lymph vessels
lymphoid tissuea type of loose connective tissue called reticular connective tissue; dominates all lymphoid organs except thymus
lymphatic trunkssame three tunics as veins; the largest of lymph vessels
lymphatic capillariesbegin as blind-ended tubes that weave between tissue cells and blood capillaries in loose connective tissues; the smallest vessels
lymph nodebean-shaped structure surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule with fibrous strands that divide it into compartments
lymphatic capillariescollects fluid that leaks from blood capillaries into tissue fluid
lymph nodesdistinct bean-shaped structures that “filter” lymph fluid as it is moved toward the circulatory system
lymphatic ductslargest vessels; carry lymph fluid to subclavian veins
lymphatic collecting vesselscollect lymph fluid draining from lymphatic capillaries
lymphoid tissueprovides a proliferation site for lymphocytes and furnishes surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
hilusthe indented region on the concave side of the node leading into the efferent vessels
subcapsular sinusa large, baglike structure leading into a number of small sinuses
afferent lymphatic vesselsvessels leading into lymph node
efferent lymphatic vesselsvessels leaving the lymph node
tonsilslymphoid organs; found around the entrance to the pharynx
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)small lymphoid tissues found in digestive and respiratory tracts
spleensoft, blood-rich organ about the size of a fist (largest lymphoid organ)
Peyer’s patchesisolated clusters of lymph follicles located mostly in the wall of the appendix
thymus glandlocated in the inferior neck and extends into the superior thorax
t celldeep cortex
b cellwithin germinal center
plasma cellsmedullary cords
macrophageslymph sinus
dendritic cellssurrounding the germinal center
Peyer’s patchesdestroy bacteria in appendix; generate “memory” lymphocytes for long-term memory in intestine
thymusimportant in early years of life by training T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent
tonsilsguard the throat by “inviting” bacteria into the lymphatic system and then destroying them
MALTprotects the digestive and respiratory tracts from never-ending onslaughts of foreign matter entering mucosa-lined cavities
spleenprovides a large, blood-filled site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response; cleanses the blood
interstitial fluidWhat is the composition of lymph most similar to?
Capillary bedsLymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with:
Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vesselsWhich of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?
Venous circulationOnce collected, lymph is returned to:
return tissue fluid to the bloodstreamLymphatic vessels:
Plasma cellsAntibodies are produced by _______.
ThymusWhich of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does not contain reticular connective tissue?
They filter lymphWhich of the following is a role of lymph nodes?
Bone marrowWhich of the following is not a lymphoid tissue/organ?
Palantine tonsilsThe ________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.
along the small intestinePeyer’s patches are located:
thymusThe first lymphoid organ to appear in development is (are) the:
FalseLymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels.
TrueThe thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells.
blood vesselsWhich of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?
increase permeabilityWhat is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?
lymphocytesWhich of the following are considered the primary immune system cells?
lymph nodesWhat is/are the principal lymphoid organ(s) in the body?
SpleenWhich lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?
thymus glandWhich lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?
TonsilsWhich of the following is/are the simplest lymphoid organ(s)?
lymph nodesWhich of the following is NOT a part of the MALT?
distal portion of the small intestineWhere are Peyer’s patches located?
eosinophilWhich of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?
intact skin and mucous membranesWhat constitutes the body’s first line of defense against disease?
T cellsWhich of the following is NOT a nonspecific internal defense against disease?
inflammationWhich defense mechanism results in redness, heat, pain, and swelling?
to develop antibodies against various diseasesWhy are children given vaccinations?
interferonWhich antimicrobial protein is produced by a virus-infected cell?
It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign materialWhich of the following does NOT describe the adaptive immune response?
antigensWhat mobilizes the adaptive defenses and provokes an immune response?
dendritic cellsWhich cells engulf antigens and present fragments of them on their own surfaces where they can be recognized by cells that will deal with them?
helper T cellWhich cell of the immune system is absolutely required for an adaptive immune response?
processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cellsWhat types of antigen are recognized by T cells?
T cellsWhich of the following is/are not a part of the innate immune defenses?
antibodiesProinflammatory signals include all of the following except:
Chemotaxis____________ is the final step of phagocyte mobilization.
IFNs help the body combat viral infectionsWhich of the following is a role of interferons (IFNs)?
OpsonizationWhich of the following is an effect of complement activation?
feverPyrogens induce __________.
T cellsCellular immunity is attributed to the action of:
ThymusT cells achieve self-tolerance in the _______.
Natural killer cellsWhich of the following does not serve as an antigen-presenting cell?
A primary response results when naïve lymphocytes are activated, while a secondary response is a result of activating memory cells.Choose the true statement regarding the primary versus the secondary immune response.
Natural passive___________ immunity protects a baby who is fed breast milk.
IgG________ is the most abundant class of antibodies in plasma.
T cytoxic cells________ are lymphocytes that directly kill virus infected cells.
T helper cellsAntigens bound to MHC II activate:
The T cell enters a state of anergy.What occurs if a T cell binds to an antigen and the T cell does not receive a co-stimulatory signal?
T helper cells_______ are lymphocytes that coordinate cellular and humoral immune responses.
Immediate hypersensitivity: allergic contact dermatitisWhich is mismatched?
FalseFever is one of the cardinal signs of inflammation.
TrueMHC I proteins (major histocompatibility class I proteins) are found on most cells of the body.
naturally actively acquired humoral immunityantibodies passed from mother to fetus via placenta, or to infant in her milk
artificially actively acquired humoral immunityvaccine; dead or attenuated pathogens
naturally passively acquired humoral immunityinfection; contact with pathogen
artificially passively acquired humoral immunityinjection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
1. Antigen invades body.
2. Plasma cells produce large amounts of class IgE antibodies against allergen.
3. IgE antibodies attach to mast cells in body tissues.
4. More of same antigen invades body.
5. Antigen combines with IgE attached to mast cells (and basophils), triggering degranulation and the release of histamine.
6. Histamine causes blood cells to dilate and become leaky.
The stages of the allergic response.
mast cellsinvoke inflammation when IgE cross-links to them
helper T cellscoordinate humoral and cellular immune responses
plasma cellsproduce immunoglobulins
macrophagesa common APC
gamma globulina class of plasma protein
opsonizationthis process encourages phagocytosis
acid mantlecovers the skin and limits bacterial growth
leukocytosischaracterized by high numbers of neutrophils
saliva and tearscontains the antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme
skinfirst line of defense against invading organisms
stomach mucosaproduces HCl and enzymes that kill bacteria
respiratory tractsticky mucous membrane lined with cilia
natural killer cellsa small subgroup of lymphocytes that will attack cancerous cells
macrophagesderived from circulating monocytes
neutrophilsphagocytes; will migrate to the site of an infection within a few hours
hyperemiaincreased blood flow due to vasodilation of blood vessels entering the injured area
chemotaxisthe process by which white blood cells are attracted to the site of an injury
exudateseeps from the capillaries and contains clotting factors and antibodies
edemacaused by excess blood flow to the injured area; helps to dilute harmful substances and brings in excess oxygen
leukocytosischemicals released from injured tissues stimulate rapid proliferation and release of cells
marginationneutrophils attach to CAMs on the endothelial linings in the injured area
diapedesisneutrophils squeeze through walls of capillaries into the tissues
chemotaxisinflammatory chemicals attract neutrophils to the injured areas
helper T cellsattack and lyse cells that are not “self”
plasma cellssecrete antibodies
memory B cellsbind to antigen-presenting cells to begin the process of co-stimulation
cytotoxic T cellscapable of mounting a rapid attack against the same antigen in secondary immune responses
IgGmost abundant antibody found in the plasma
IgAlevels greatly elevated during severe allergic responses
IgMlarge antibody released by plasma cells in a primary response
IgEfound in body secretions such as milk, saliva, and sweat
active naturalimmunity gained from being exposed to the pathogen and developing the illness
active artificialimmunity gained through injections of dead or attenuated strains of the disease-causing agents
passive naturalimmunity gained from transport of antibodies across the placental membrane or through the mother’s milk
passive artificialimmunity gained from injections of clonal antibodies to fight off a current pathogen invasion
multiple sclerosisdisease that destroys the myelin sheaths of the brain and spinal cord
Graves’ diseasethyroid gland becomes hyperactive
rheumatoid arthritisdisease that destroys the linings of joints
myasthenia gravisdisease that impairs communication between nerves and skeletal muscles
innatebarrier and chemical defenses
adaptivedefenses we gain through life experiences and exposure to antigens
pathogensharmful microorganisms
complementsystem of proteins that lyses cell membranes
immunoglobulinsproteins that attach to antigen