chap 2 :Sys and Theories

mechanism 6The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explaining by the laws of physics and chemistry is …..
mechanismAccording to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was
mechanismThe zeitgeist the 17th-19th century Europe and of the United States was marked by
Newton and GalileoThe theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by
which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?effects are predictable and measurable
what invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”clock
The doctrine that acts are determined by past events isdeterminism
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) isreductionism.
seventeenth century philosophers and scientists argued that like clocks and the universe ________ are regular, predictable, observable, and measurable.human beings
Mechanized figures were created in the seventeenth century that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things. These were called.Automata
philosophers and scientists joined in agreement thatexperimental and quantititative methods could be applied to the study of human nature.
The first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence wasbabbage’s calculating machine
contemporary cognitive psychologists’s computer model of artificial intelligence is a direct descendant ofbabbage’s calculating machine
who published a clear explanation of how the calculating machine functioned and pointed out it’s potential use and implificationsLovelace
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience isempiricism
Empiricism attributes all knowledge toexperience
Descartes was significant to psychology as a science because he helped liberatescience from the stranglehold of theology
who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychologyDescartes
In the 200th century, carl jung based important decisions on his dream. A 17th century predecessor in this practice wasDescartes
For Descartes, the application of mathematical principle to sciences would producecertainty of knowledge
In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science.Descartes
The question of the distinction b/w mental and physical qualities refers tothe mind-body problem
Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction was b/w mind and body was essentially unidirectional , thatthe mind influenced the body
Descartes dualism was novel in its emphasis on theinfluence of the body on the mind.
Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body exceptthought
Descartes changed the focus from the study of _____ to the study of ______.soul ; mind
Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of __________ apply. (32)mechanics
The body will respond without any internal conscious intent and in response to some external stimulus. This fact illustrates Descartes’s principle ofundulatio reflexa
In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus he is an intellectual ancestor ofS-R Psychology
The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes theory ofreflex action
Descartes is often called the author of the theory ofreflex action
Which of the follow statements best describes Descartes dualistic theory of human nature?The mind and body mutually influence each other’s actions
Descartes term for the sit of the body-mind interactions was the _______ ,because it is _________conarium ; not duplicated in both brain hemispheres
descartes theorized that nerve tubes conveyed ______ ,which could produce an impression on the ________ : from this, the mind could produce a ________animal spirits, conarium, sensation
descartes posited that the mind-body interaction occurred in thepineal body
according to descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brainwhere the mind and body interact
descartes proposed that the mind produces two kinds of ideas,_____ and _______.derived ; innate
Derived ideasarise from the direct application of external stimulus.
an example of innate idea isinfinity
Descartes contribution includeall of the choices are correct
the idea of a house is an example of dESCARTES NOTION OFDERIVED IDEAS
Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of axioms of geometry, thus these axioms are _____ ideas.innate
the doctrine of _____ is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists.innate ideas
descartes notion that we are brownish certain person processes is also a principle of which modern school of psychology ?gstalt
The doctrine that recognized only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable ispositivism
both the term and concept of positivism represents the thought ofcomte
the idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is calledpositivism
in eyewitness testimoney, one swears that what one has observed accurately depicts reality. b/c this “fact”has not been determined through the methods of science, it does not meet comes strictest application ofpositivism
the doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter ismaterialism
Those who argue today that behavior is no more than actions of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled “modern”materialists
materialism is the belief thatall things can be described in physical terms
locke’s ______ marks the formal beginning of british empiricismAn/ES Concerning Human Understanding
A fundamental difference b/w Descartes psychology and that of Lock was their position about the existence ofinnate ideas
John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Lockethe mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas.
Aristotle held that the mind was a wax slate upon which impressions are made. Locke invoked the metaphor of the _____ to illustrate the same phenomenon.Tabula rasa
what position did Locke take on the origin of ideas?all ideas are acquired from experience ; no ideas are innate
Locke argued that ideas seem to us to be innate b/cwe don’t recollect having learned them
for locks , ideas are the result ofreflection and sensations
according to locke , in human development, what kind of ideas appear first ?sensation
“Why do i have do to read what locke wrote over 300 years ago? shultz and shultz and the instructor get paid to summarize that for me. ” what answer would the textbook author give you?“full understanding comes from the original data of history from the theorists themselves”
according to locke, simple ideas become complex through the process ofreflection
according to locke, the idea of an army or navy would be an example ofa complex idea
for locke, the difference b/w a simple and complex idea is that a simple ideacannot be reduced
if a tree falls in the forest and no one is present to hear it, then the fall makes no sound. using locked distinctions, this conclusion that the sound is ansecondary quality
according to locke the tickle of a feather would be ansecondary quality
the notion of secondary qualities was proposed by locke to explainthe lack of one to one association between the physical world and ones experience of it.
if a tree falls in the forest and none is present to hear it , no sound occurs, in fact the tree doesn’t exist until someone perceives it. This argument illustrates the position ofberkely