Chapter 9 & 10 Bio Anth

The arboreal hypothesis proposes that defining primate characteristics were adaptations to life in the trees, such asgrasping hands and feet, developed vision, and greater intelligence.
Biological anthropologists have posited the visual predation hypothesis, which proposes that primate traits arose as adaptation to preying on insects and small mammals. True or false.True
In trying to understand primate evolution, it is clear that certain primate traits were responses to the acquisition of fruit during the Cenozoic period; this assumption is proposed as the angiosperm radiation hypothesis. True or false.True
Proconsulids were Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primates. True or false.False
Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primatesplesiadapiforms
Euprimates represent thefirst true primates
Plesiadapiforms are also called proprimates. True or false.True
Carpolestes is a fossil mammalian genus considered to be an ancestor to ____________.Adapids and omomyids.
As discussed in Chapter 9, basal anthropoids are ________Eocene primates that are the earliest anthropoids
As we discussed in class and in your textbook, the two genera of propliopithecids discovered at Fayum Egypt include _________Propliopithecus and Aegyptopithecus.
The evolution of apes began in Africa and continued into where during the Miocene?Europe and Asia
The best-accepted hypothesis for the dispersal of African monkeys to the New World is ___________platyrrhines evolved from anthropoids in Africa that migrated across the Atlantic to South America.
According to Larsen in Chapter 9, Chororapithecus is considered the ____________common ancestor of African apes and hominins.
According to our class discussion and Larsen in your textbook in Chapter 9: Monkeys underwent massive__________in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.adaptive radiation.
As discussed in Chapter 9, like that of Dryopithecus, a modern gorilla mandible has __________a Y-5 molar pattern, low rounded cusps, large canines, and a diastema.
Apes first appear in Europe and Asia from about ________17 mya
A rapid temperature increase about 55 mya created tropical conditions around the world, resulting in the _________adaptive radiation of Euprimates
According to Larsen in Chapter 9, which Eocene organisms had clear primate characteristics like a postorbital bar, opposable thumbs, nails, and a large brain?adapids and omomyids.
As discussed in lecture notes and in Chapter 9 in your textbook; the northern African fossil primate called Biretia may be an early anthropoid, based on the morphology of its ___lower premolar tooth.
Sivapithecus is widely recognized as an ancestral member of which ape lineage?orangutan.
According to Larsen in Chapter 9, if you are examining the fossil remains of the genus Dryopithecus, they are most likely from where?France.
During the Miocene epoch of the Cenozoic era, there was an adaptive radiation of which kind of primate?apes.
Anthropoids fossil groups are characterized by an eye orbit fully enclosed by bone. True or false.True
What is the most distinctive feature of ape dentition, clearly distinguishing apes from Old World monkeys?A Y-5 molar pattern
Which of the following apes has been proposed as the last common ancestor of living African apes and humans?______Ouranopithecus.
Why is the Fayum depression in Egypt such an important site for understanding the origin and diversification of anthropoid primates?The Fayum Depression in Egypt is an important site because it is where the first recorded anthropoids were found. The fossils found at this site were the first irrefutable higher primates, and had many of the traits expected of a higher primate.
According to Larsen (Chapter 10), a hominin is defined as having two obligate behaviors _______bipedal locomotion and nonhoning chewing complex.
Hunting and tool use was the foundational behavior of Hominini. True or false?False
Which of the following is an adaptive characteristic of bipedalism?longitudinal arch in the foot.
Hominins have canines that are _________small, blunt, and nonprojecting, with no diastema
Humans use their molars for ______crushing.
Thick dental enamel in ________ helps with crushing food.australopithecines
Bipedalism’s advantages over knuckle walking (quadrupedalism) include:– an increased ability to see greater distances.
– ease of transporting food.
An increased ability to see greater distances is one of the adaptations to bipedalism and diurnal sleeping patterns. True or false?False
The first recognizable ancestors of the lineage leading to humansSahelanthropus tchadensis
Which of the following is a derived (character) trait of Sahelanthropus tchandensis?nonhoning chewing complex.
In an ape, the space between the upper lateral incisor and the canine that accommodates a large, projecting lower canine is a _______diastema.
The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than _____4 million years ago
You find a fossil that you are sure shows evidence of obligate bipedalism. You know this because which of the following anatomical traits is present?thighbones (femora) that angle in toward the knees.
reduced sexual dimorphism in early hominins is an evidence for cooperation and pair bonding. True or false?True
Based on postcranial morphology, Ardipithecus ramidus “Ardi” was adapted to life in trees and on the ground. True or false?True
Ecological evidence from the site where Australopithecus ramidus “Ardi” was found shows that early hominins lived in a forest. True or false?False
Orrorin tugenensis lived in a dry savannah mixed with jungle and woodland.False
In East Africa robust australopithecines are also called _______Paranthropus
Distinctive traits of robust australopithecines include _____– small front teeth and large back teeth.
– a big face and a sagittal crest.
Australopithecus garhi may be the ancestor of ______Homo habilis.
Australopithecus robustus was likely the longest-surviving species of australopithecine in South Africa. It had _______large molars, a big face, and a sagittal crest
The Laetoli footprints demonstrate that the foot of Australopithecus afarensis was humanlike in having ______a rounded heel.
b. a nondivergent big toe.
c. a double arch.
The discovery of Kenyanthropus platyops was important mainly because ______it showed diversity in the hominin fossil record 3.5 mya.
three key developments in the origins of primatesThe first primates
the origins of higher primates (anthropoids)
origins and evolution or the major anthropoid groups (monkeys, apes, and humans).
primate characteristicsForward-facing eyes, a postorbital bar (fully enclosed eyes), a large cranial vault, a reduced snout, and a versatile dentition
PlesiadaptisPrimatelike animals that were likely ancestors of primate ancestors.
plesiadaptiformsPaleocene organisms that may have been the first primates, originating from an adaptive radiation of mammals.
proprimatesSeparate order of early primate ancestors from the Paleocene, such as the plesiadaptiforms.
euprimatesFirst true primates from the Eocene the tarsierlike omomyids and the lemurlike adaptids.
Frederick SzalayAmerican anthropologist that regards the omomyids as more likely candidates for the ancestry of anthropoids than lemurs are.
basal anthropoidsA parapithecid genus from the Oligocene, possibly ancestral to anthropoids.
EosimiasA genus of very small basal anthropoids from the Eocene.
BiretiaLarger basal anthropoid from the Fayum Depression in Egypt. From the late Eocene, about 37 million years ago.
Paleocene (66-56 mya)Primate ancestors didn’t have the typical primate characteristics at this time. E.g. shortened snout, convergent eyes, increased brain size etc.
Eocene (56-34 mya)Two groups of closely related mammals that lived during this time, adaptids and omomyids have typical primate characteristics.
oligopithecidsEarliest anthropoid ancestors in the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt.
parapithecidsAnthropoid ancestors from the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt.
propliopithecidsAnthropoid ancestors from the Oligocene, found in Africa.
ParapithecusA genus of later parapithecids from the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt.
PropliopithecusOligocene propliopithecid genus.
AegyptopithecusA propliopithecid genus from the Oligocene, probably ancestral to catarrhines; the largest primate found in the Fayum, Egypt. Earliest definitive catarrhine.
EpochsPaleocene: 66–56 mya
Eocene: 56-34 mya
Oligocene: 34-23 mya
Miocene: 23-5.3 mya
Pliocene: 5.3-2.6 mya
Pleistocene: 2.6-.01 mya
Holocene: .01-present
Anthropoids coming to South America hypotheses.1. Migrated from North America to become the platyrrhine species of the Oligocene.
2. After originating in Africa, the ancestors crossed the Atlantic.
3. After originating in Africa, the ancestors came to South America via Antarctica.
4. Catarrhines and Platyrrhines evolved independently.
Where did apes originate?Africa
During what epoch did apes begin to dominate the the primate world?Miocene
proconsulidsEarly Miocene apes from East Africa
MicropithecusA genus of very small proconsulids from the Miocene.
ProconsulA genus of early Miocene proconsulids from Africa, ancestral to catarrhines. Proconsul major was about the size of a chimp.
What parts of the Miocene apes looked like modern apes?skulls and teeth
timeline of miocene apes1. Africa to Europe (16.5-17 mya)
2. Spread through Europe and Asia (14-16 mya)
3. Continued presence in Europe and Asia (9-13.5 mya)
4. To southeast Asia and back to Africa (6-10 mya)
DryopithecusA genus of dryopithecid apes found in southern France and norther Spain.
dryopithecidsEarly Miocene apes found in various locales in Europe.
sivapithecidsEarly Miocene apes found in Asia.
SivapithecusA genus of Miocene sivapithecids, proposed as ancestral to orangutans.
KhoratpithecusA genus of Miocene apes from Asia, likely ancestral to orangutans.