Abnormal Chapter 1-4

If you wanted a career in which you focus on detecting, assessing, and treating abnormal patterns of functioning, you should look into becoming a:clinical practitioner
a student in an abnormal psychological class receives the highest test grade in a class of 50 students. this behavior is considered abnormal because it is:deviant
the explicit and implicit rules for proper conduct that a society establishes are referred to as:norms
behavior that violates legal normals is:criminal/abnormal
the history, values, institutions, technology, and arts of a society make up that society’s…behaviors valued by culture
brilliant scholars or champion athletes are not considered clinically abnormal because..their behaviors are unusual to the norm but do not cause distress, dysfunction, or danger.
Mario is so miserable that he can barely tolerate living. According to the definition to abnormality, this description is an example of:distress
an individual has a 9 to 5 job. However, this person seldom gets up early enough to be at work on time, and expresses great distress over this fact. This individual’s behavior would be considered abnormal because it is:dysfunctional and deviant
which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively?dysfunction
thomas szasz’s view about the idea of “mental illness” is that:most everyone suffers most of the time.
a researcher spends 15 or more hours per day conducting experiments or doing library reading and records observations on color-coded index cards. this person lives alone in the country, but doesn’t interfere with others’ lives. the best description of the researcher’s behavior is that it is:eccentric
several researchers have shown that in a typical year in the US about what % of adults show disturbances severe enough to need clinical treatment?more than 15%
the practice of trephination was probably used to:treat abnormal behavior such as hallucinations or to remove bone splinters or blood clots
the use of exorcism suggests a belief that what we call mental illness was caused by:evil spirits
if you were being treated by a shaman, you would most likely be undergoing:exorcism
bob experiences unshakable sadness. his friends have given up trying to cheer him up because nothing works. an ancient greek physician would have labeled his condition:melancholia
roughly 2000 years agoa greek or roman physician would most likely diagnose a person experiencing an overall decline in intellectual functioning as suffering from:delusions
jeff’s left arm suddenly went numb. his physician was unable to find a physical cause of the problem. jeff is apparently experiencing what the ancient greek physicians called:hysteria
greek and roman physicians described a person with mania as having symptoms offrenzied activity and euphoria
sam once found a $100 on the sidewalk and did not turn it into the police. recently he has become more and more convinced that the police know this and have been following him and searching his house. he is certain that they mean to arrest him and put him in jail. his behavior involves what the ancient greeks referred to as:delusions
as you are talking to your advisor, he stares at the wall and asks you if you see the ants crawling on it (there are none). Your advisor is:hallucinating
Hippocrates thought that abnormal behavior resulted from an imbalance in the four humors, one of which was:yellow bile, blood, black bile, and phlegm
Hippocrates’s contribution to the development of our understanding of mental illness was the view that such conditions were the result of:stress
Hippocrates attempted to treat mental disorders by:correcting the underlying physical pathology
What model of mental illness did most people hold during the Middle Ages?demonological-influence of Sata
Tarantism and lycanthropy are examples of:mass madness
Those most often in charge of treating abnormality in the middle ages in europe were the:clergymen
The first physician to specialize in mental illness was:Johann Weyer
In many areas, asylums of the 1500s, such as Bethlehem asylum in London, became:tourist attractions
What is the distinction of Bethlehem Hospital, founded in London in 1547?popularly called “bedlum”
The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that:patients were perceived as productive human beings whose mental functioning had simply broken down
The man who brought about the reforms of moral therapy to northern England was:William Tuke
The man who brought the reforms of moral therapy to the US was:Benjamin Rush
the american schoolteacher who lobbied state legistlautres for law to mandate human treatment of people with mental disorders was:Dorothea Dix
The “moral treatment” movement rapidly declined in the late 19th century because:money and staffing shortages, recovery rates declines, overcrowding, assumption that all can be cured
part of the downfall of moral therapy was thatpeople assumed all patients could be cured if treated with humanity
hippocrates’ model of mental illness would be described asa somatogenic perspective
another term for a cluster of symptoms issyndrome
the finding that syphilis causes general paresis is important because it supports the idea thatorganic factors are responsible for mental disorders
the german researcher who argued that physical factors may cause mental dysfunction, and who developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behaviors, was:Emil Kraepelin
The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems to have been the mose successful was the use of:various meds
mesmer because famous (or infamous) for his work with pateitns suffering from bodily problems with no physical basis. his patients’ disorders are termed:hysterical disorders
an otherwise “normal” person during hypnotic suggestion is made to bark, sit, and fetch like a dog. the occurrence of these “abnormal” behaviors lends support to which explanation for abnormality?the psychogenic perspective
the 19th century physician who argued that hysterical disorders were the result of degeneration in portions of the brain was:Charcot
The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Jean Charcot, Josef Breuer, and even Sigmund Freud was:hypnotism
Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of:psychoanalysis
“many people are not away of the sources of their abnormality, because abnormality often arises from unconscious psychological processes; such people need insight about those processes.” Who would agree most strongly with this statement?Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis is NOT very effective for hospitalized mental patients because:it requires levels of clarity, insight and verbal skills
a medical researcher develops a drug that decreases symptoms of depression and other “mood” disorders. the general term for this type of drug is:antidepressant
Drugs designed to decrease extremely confused and distorted thinking are termed:antipsychotic drugs
Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of mental dysfunction by affecting the brain are called:psychotropic medication
Jena is very unhappy. the condition is chronic and severe. if her psychiatrist prescribed medication it would likely be:an antidepressant
in 1995, 600,000 people were in public mental health institutions in the US. since 1955, the number of institutionalized persons has:Decreased
in the US today, one is most likely to find a severely ill mental patient:on the street or in jail
one cause of the increase in homeless individuals in recent decades has been the:community mental health approach
the approach to therapy for mental illness in which a person pays a psychotherapist for services is called:private psychotherapy
Surveys suggest that about what proportion of adults in the US receive psychological therapy in a typical year?1/5
the fact that hundreds of thousands of people with severe psychological disturbances end up living on the streets or in jails points out one deficiency of:deinstitutionalization
if you are a typical person undergoing therapy in the US, your therapy will last for:fewer than 5 sessions per year
a significant change in the type of care offered now compared with the time Freud was practicing is that:people are more likely to be treated for living problems
When community programs are focused on correcting social conditions that give rise to psychological problems, the approach is called:prevention
a psychologist focuses on optimism, wisdom, happiness, an interpersonal skill. the psychologist is most likely:promoting positive psychology
if a patient is a minority group member and has trouble affording treatment, feels uncomfortable with the therapist, and doesn’t see results, the person is at risk for:dropping out of therapy
“What the &#%@# is going on? the insurance company says i have to stop my anger management program now!” the client who says this is most likely voicing concern about amanaged care program
Parity laws for insurance coverage of mental health treatment mandate that:insurance companies provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems
a physician who offers psychotherapy is called a:psychiatrist
The specialty that presently has the largest number of practitioners is:social workers
a psychiatrist receives three to four years of training in the treatment of abnormal functioning after medical school; this training is called a:residency
one major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatristscomplete a residency in a medical setting
a person is hard at work trying to discover which combination of environmental genetic factors produces schizophrenia. most likely, the person is a:clinical researcher
the total economic cost of psycholigcal disorders, including substance abuse, in the US is closes to:400 billion
clinical psychologists are unique among mental health professionals because they:use psychological tests and conduct research
in science, the perspectives used to explain phenomena are known asmodels or paradigms
the models or paradigm an investigator uses influences:questions and observations the investigator uses
the model of abnormality hat cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the:biological model
the model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the:sociocultural model
the model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:sociocultural model
the model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the:psychodynamic model
the model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the:behavioral model
the model of abnormality that concentrates on thinking is the:cognitive model
the model of abnormality that focuses on the roles in behavior is the:humanistic-existential model
huntington’s disease, which has psychological as well as physical aspects, results from loss of cells in the:basal ganglia
messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called:synapses
depression has been linked to which neurotransmitter abnormalityserotonin
abnormal chemical activity in the body’s endocrine system relates to the release of:hormones
in how many cases of psychological disorders does an individual gene appear to be responsible?vitrually none- it take many genes
current research suggest that schizophrenia may be related to:inheritance
an important factor to consider in using drugs for the treatment of abnormality would be that:drugs are believed to be over-used and don’t help everyone
electoconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used most often in the treatment ofdepression
an assumption of determinism is that abnormal behaviors:no behavior is accidental. all is determined by past experiences.
Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the:ego, superego, and id
what we would call “conscience” is most like what Freud would call the:superego
according to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. this is called:fixation
the motivation to form relationships with other is a central theme of:object relations theory
a general term used for theories such as Freud’s, Adler’s, and Jung’s is:psychodynamic
the model most likely to suggest using free association to uncover unconscious processes is the _______ model.psychodynamic
Colin is asked to “free associate” about his mother’s new husband and he responds by changing the subject. A psychodynamic therapist would consider this an example of:resistance
The model most likely to use terms such as “resistance” and “transference” is the ______ model.psychodynamic
according to Freud, another term for the symbolic meaning of dreams isLlatent content
if a patient relives past repressed feelings, that patient is said to have experienced ______, according to psychoanalysts.catharsis
a patient participates in weekly therapy for several years, gradually becoming aware of the impact of early life events on present functioning. the form of psychotherapy the patient is reciving is called:psychodynamic theory
“when i was young, i met a large dog. i wasn’t afriad of the dog, but as i tried to pet it, the dog snarled and jumped at me. i have been afraid of dogs ever since.” a therapist who that this sentence describes a phobia acquired from classical conditioning most likely favors which model of abnormality?behavioral
when a young child yells and throws toys (temper tantrums) the parents give the child a good deal of attention. as time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. a behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from:operant conditioning
animals and humans learn without reinforcement. they learn just by watching. this form of learning is called:modeling
the model most likely to emphasize the important of one’s history of conditioning as the source of depression is the _______ model.behavioral
a previously neutral environmental even that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus is called a:conditioned response
if you imagine biting into a big, juicy, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. the lemon is an example of:unconditioned stimulus
if you close your eyes and imagine biting into a big, sour lemon, you are likely to salivate. the salivation to this imagery is an example of:conditioned response
if, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly present alone (without the unconditioned stimulus), it will eventually stop eliciting the conditioned response through a process called:extinction
the first step in using the treatment called “systematic desensitization” is to:learn the skill of relaxation over the course of several sessions
systematic desensitization has been shown to be especially effective in the treatment of:phobias
“thoughts, as well as overt behaviors, are acquired and modified by various forms of conditioning.” the orientation of the author of this quote would most likely be:cognitive behavioral
if you believe that you can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary, Bandura would say that you had a positive sense of:self-efficacy
an athlete who is in fact well prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, “i can’t do this! i need to be perfect, and i know i’m going to fail.” the theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance most likely would support which model of abnormality?cognitive model
the form of therapy that helps clients recognize errors in logic, and try out new interpretations of events is:cognitive therapy
Henry goes into a fit of depression and self-abuse when anyone criticizes or expresses disapproval. Much of what he does is for the purpose of getting people to like him. Cognitive theorists would say that Henry’s depression results in large part from:illogical thinking
When Jose did not get the job, he was sure that everything was going wrong, that his life was completely off track. this thought is an example ofovergeneralization
if a patient is being guided to challenge irrational thinking and to try out new interpretations, the patient is most likely being treated by a follower of:Beck
“when we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life, and with the value they find in living.” a psychologist from which background would agree most strongly with this statement?humanistic existential
according to __________, the self-actualization motive plays an important part in human functioning.humanists
a therapist who believes people often hide from their responsibilities, and therefore often feel alienated, depressed, inauthentic–empty–would most likely be:existential
humanists would say that an individual who cares about others, is spontaneous, courageous, and independent:self-actualizing
if you recognize your worth as a person, carl rogers would say that you have devloped:unconditional self-regard
the term for the form of psychotherapy pioneered by carl rogers is:client-centered therapy
a therapist listens carefully to a client’s words, then attempts to show accurate empathy and genuineness. the hope is that the client will self-examine with acceptance and honesty. most likely the therapist is:humanistic
in rogers’ therapy, the honesty and genuineness of the therapist allows clients to look at themselves with acceptance in a process called:experiencing
“that’s all right. you’re doing your best, dont worry. i am here for you.” a therapist who would say this as a primary part of the therapy process would most probably follow the ____ tradition.humanistic
when a gestalt therapist refuses to meet her patient’s demands, the therapist is using:skillful frustration
“you can do anything you want. you can lead a perfectly useless life. it is all up to you.” a therapist who would say these frustrating statements as a primary part of the therapy process would follow the _____ tradition.existential
therapists who often deliberately frustrate and challenge their clients, and who often use role playing and a “here and now” orientation, are:gestalt
the model of abnormality that pays particular attention to a client’s family structure, societal normals, and a client’s roles in society is:the sociocultural model
david rosenhan sent “pseudopatients” to a mental hospital where they pretend to be disturbed. the results led him to conclude that _____ greatly impacts mental illness.labeling
according to family systems theory, families that show “disengagement” are characterized by:very rigid boundaries, children might find it hard to function in a group or to give or request support
if a mother seems excessively involved in her child’s life such that they do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to beenmeshed
current multicultural perspectives are most likely to focus on:special external pressure is faced by members of a culture
multicultural theorists would explain the higher levels of mental illness among poor people as most likely due to:social pressures leading to stress
recent research on the role of religion in mental health shows that religious people:cope better with life stresses than unreligious
if a therapist advised you to pay attention to how you were communicating with family members and to change harmful patterns, the therapist would most likely be practicing:conjoint family therapy
a primary focus of the community treatment approach to abnormality is:prevention
providing treatment as soon as it is needed, so that problems that are moderate or worse do not become long-term, is called:primary prevention
combining any two or more treatment techniques results in an approach is called:eclectic
about what percent of clinicians today would describe their approach as eclectic?more than 20%
imagine that a man inherits the tendency to be socially awkward. that leads him to choose inappropriate romantic partners who increase his level of stress. a biopsychosocial therapist would use the _____ effects explanation of his functioning.reciprocal
a mental health practictioner attempts to learn about the behavior and emotional state of each client. this approach to abnormal psychology is called:idiographic
when graduate schools choose students based on test scores, college grades, and relevant experience, they are engaging in:assessment
a functional analysis involves:an analysis of how the behaviors are learned and reinforced
one of the assumptions of a functional analysis is that:abnormal behaviors are learned
a clinician gathers data about what things might be reinforcing to someone’s abnormal behavior. this variety of assessment is called:behavioral
another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is:standardization
if a new test for anxiety is normed on individuals who are waiting to take introductory psychology final exams, the new test is surely lacking:adequate standardization
a panel of psychologists and psychiatrists evaluates the test results and clinical interviews of a client in a sanity hearing. they all arrive at the same diagnosis. the panel has high:interrater validity
because people who are manic have very elevated moods, a new test for mania includes questions about how happy the person feels and how often he or she laughs. this test has:face validity
a test is constructed to identify people who will develop schizophrenia. of the 100 people the test identifies, 93 show signs of schizophrenia within five years. the test may be said to have high:predictive validity
a new assessment tool does a good job of differentiating those who later will be depressed and those who will not be depressed, and it produces results similar to those of other tools measuring depression. therefore, the new assessment tool has good:predictive validity
if a new test for assessing anorectic tendencies produces scores comparable to those of other tests for assessing anorectic tendencies, then the new test has high:concurrent validity
particular strength of the interview processchance to get a general sense of the client
the clinical interviewer most interested in stimuli that trigger abnormal responses would have what orientation?behavioral clinician
a clinical interviewer says, in part, ‘How do you feel about yourself today? how do you feel about whats going on in your life?’ Most likely, that clinical interviewer’s orientationhumanistic clinician
an interviewer who asks a client questions such as “where are you now?” “why do you think you’re here?” or even “who are you?” is probably conducting a:mental status exam
if a clinician begins by asking, “would you tell me about yourself?” the clinician is most likely conducting a:unstructured interview
a patient complains of a phobia. two lines of questioning by the clincian concern the specific object of the phobia and what the person does when he or she confronts that object. this clincian’s orientation is probably:behavioral
one limit of the clinical interview as an assessment tool is that:unstructured interviews can lack reliability
personality assessment using projective tests is designed to:help assess the unconscious drives and conflicts they believe to be at the root of abnormal functioning
the assumption behind the use of progressive tests as assessment tools is that:responses come from the client’s unconscious
a patient looks at a series of black and white pictures, making up a dramatic story about each. the patient is taking:thematic appreciation test
when a clinician using the Rorschach focuses on the actual images that a person “sees, the clinician is emphasizingtheme
statements were presented to both mental patients and nonpatients. they were asked to indicate whether each statement was applicable to themselves. the questions that differentiated between the two groups comprised the final test. what is the term for this technique of test construction?criterium key
Youssef is the kind of person who breaks laws and rules with no feeling of guilt and is emotionally shallow. he would probably score high on the MMPI-2 scale called:psychopathic deviate
Clients check off either “applies” or “does not apply” to a series of 200 items dealing with what they do and what they think in a variety of situations. the kind of test they are taking most likely is a:personality inventory
the MMPI-2 is considered by many to be superior to the orginal MMPI because the MMPI-2:has a more valid indicator of personality and abnormal functioning than the original version more diverse than the people
George is consumed with concern that his house will burn down. before he leaves, he makes sure that all his appliances are unplugged. he often has to go back home and check to make sure he did not leave any plugged in. which MMPI-2 scale would he most likely score high on?psychasthenia (general anxiety)
the test with the highest validity in identifying psychological disturbances is the:MMPI
an inventory that asks about one’s level of anxiety, depression, and anger is an _____ inventory.affective
an inventory that asks about how one would act in a variety of situations is a ______ inventory.social skills
a response inventory that asks individuals to provide detailed information about their typical thoughts and assumptions is an:cognitive inventory
a client is hooked up to an apparatus that measures galvanic skin response and blood pressure, after which the client verbally answers a series of questions. the type of clinical test being used is:psychophysiological tests
if your friend had her brain waves recorded in order to measure electrical activity, she most likely had an:electroencephalogram
the assessment instrument most likely to be used to detect subtle brain abnormalities is the:neuropsychological tests
the technique that uses Xrays of the brain taken at different angles to create a static pictures of the structure of the brain is called:CAT scan (computerized axial tomography)
how does an MRI make a picture of the brain?uses magnetic property of certain atoms in the brain to create a detailed picture of the brain’s structure and activity
Binet and Simon are known for their work in creating a:intelligence test
which category of clinical tests tends to have the best standardization, reliability, and validity?intelligence tests
the most legitimate criticism of intelligence tests concerns theircultural fairness
a therapists’ preferred method of assessing abnormal behavior is to watch clients in their everyday environment and record their activities and behaviors. this approach is known as:naturalistic observation
under the instructions of a psychologist, Tina’s mother record the number of times Tina hits her brother at home, and what happens immediately prior to the hitting. in this situation, Tina’s mother is a:participant observer
one way a clinician might try to reduce observer drift would be to:decrease lengths of observation periods
a client reports having infrequent, but extremely disturbing, tactile hallucinations. the most useful of the following ways to gather information about this person would involve:self-monitoring
while someone is watching, jennifer actually eats fewer sweets than usual. this tendency to decrease a behavior while being observed is an example of:observer bias
an adult frequently displays symptoms of depression at home, but seldom does so at work. in this case, clinical observations of this person at home would lack:external validity
deciding that a clients psychological problems represent a particular disorder is called:diagnosis
the term used to refer to a psychologist’s comprehensive view of the causes and stimuli sustaining a person’s abnormal behavior is:clinical picture
a cluster of symptoms that go together and define a mental disorder is called a:syndrome
the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (presently DSM-IV-TR) was developed by:American Psychiatric Association
DSM-IV-TR is the classification system for abnormal behaviors that is:most widely used in the US
the DSM-IV-TR, the most widley used classification system of mental disorders, divides the categories along five separate axes. The Axis I disorders are disorders:that typically cause significant impairment and may emerge in various points of the lifecycle
Under what axis do long-standing problems fall in DSM-IV-TR?Axis II
a high school bully constantly ignores others’ rights, and appears not even to realize that others do have rights. a likely DSM-IV-TR partial diagnosis for this bully would be:antisocial personality disorder
mental retardation is found in the ______ axis of the DSM-IV-TR.Axis II
Axis III includes:information concerning relevant general medical conditioning from which the person is currently suffering.
Racine has recently broken up with her boyfriend and at the same time lost her job. which axis of DSM-IV-TR would these factors be included under?Axis IV
Axis IV includes:problems related to the social environment
…how many axes?5
the greater reliability of the DSM-IV-TR is most likely because of:field trials of new criteria and categories
what kind of validity is most important to clinicians in evaluating the utility of a classification system?predictive validity
an institutionalized individual behaving abnormally says, “the doctor claims i’m schizophrenic. how else would you expect me to act?” the individuals comments reflect:self-fulfilling prophecies
studies of diagnostic conclusions made by clinicians show that:the pattern is basically the same as one that has been displayed by many other people paid too much attention to some info and not enough
studies that show most therapists these days are most likely to learn about the latest information on treatment of psychological disorders from:talking with professional colleagues
therapies that have received clear research support are called:empirically supported treatment
the initial problem in studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy is:defining what it means for treatment to be successful
if you ask the question, “what type of therapy has been shown to be the most effective for my particular disorder?” you are asking a question about:therapy outcome studies
standardizing and combing the findings of many different studies is called:meta-analysis
the movement that has tried to find the common strategies that effective therapists use is called:rapprochement movement
the most effective treatment for phobias is:behavioral therapy
the single most effective treatment for schizophrenia is:drug therapy
the biggest social threat to the use of comprehensive assessment techniques today is:concerned about cost
research shows that the result of lobotomies was:irreverasible brain damage and withdrawl
if you were a schiophrenic living in the first half of the 20th century and had a mother who was thought to be a schiophreniogenic, she would have been seen as:cold and domineering
general principles that explain the underlying causes or nature of abnormal behavior in that person is consistent with the ______ approach.idiographic
the clinical practitioner would be more likely than the clinical researcher to rely on which method of investigation?case study with single participant
clinical researchers are usually covered with an _____ understanding of abnormality, which practitioners focus on an ______ understanding.nomathetic and idiographic
true experiments involve the manipulation of some:variable
what is the problem with conventional wisdom?fails to account for family influence on mental illness
a psychologist does a study of an individual involving a history, tests, and interviews of associates. a clear picture is constructed of this indiidual so that his behavior is better understood. this study is:case study