AP Psych Unit 3

Enables muscle action, learning and memory. Alzheimer’s disease if ______ deteriorates.Acetylcholine (ACH)
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Excess leads to schizophrenia and decreased leads to Parkinson’s.Dopamine
Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal. Undersupply linked to depression. Prozac drugs raise ______ levels.Serotonin
Helps control alertness and arousal. Undersupply can depress mood.Norepinephrine
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia.GABA
Major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved with memory. Oversupply produces migraines or seizures.Glutamate
Released in response to pain or exercise. Pain control. Neurotransmitter that allows bear to hibernate.Endorphins
Cells that produce myelin.Schwann Cells
Passes messages away from cell bodyAxon
Cells life support centerCell Body
Receives messages from other cellsDendrites
Sends messages to other cellsAxon Terminals
Gap in myelin sheath where AP occuresNode of Ranvier
Organelle in cell body; contains genetic infoNucleus
Covers axon; speeds up neural messagesMyelin Sheath
Fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged icons, while the fluid outside the axon membrane has more positively charged ions.Resting Potential
Axons surface is selective about what it lets in.Selective Permeable
Excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensityThreshold
Happens when positive ions flood in, which sends an electrical charge down the axonAction Potential
Positively charged ions are pumped back outsideRefractory period
Sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitterReuptake
Molecule may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind its receptor site and mimic its effects (starts the firing)Protagonist
Bind to receptors but their effects instead block a neurotransmitters functioning (stops the firing)Antagonist
Controls heart rate and breathingMedulla
Sensory switchboardThalamus
Coordinates voluntary movementCerebellum
Influences aggression and fearAmygdala
Processes memoryHippocampus
Influences hunger, regulates thirst, body temperature and sexual behaviorHypothalamus
Actions such as awake/sleep cycle; alertness/arousalReticular Formation
Receives sensory input for touch (pressure, pain, heat) and body positionParietal Lobe
Receives visual field informationOccipital Lobe
Involved in speaking, making plans and muscle movementsFrontal Lobe
Controls language reception, involved in comprehensionWernicke Area
Controls language expression and directs muscle movements involved in speechBroca Area
Lapses into a comaWhat happens if you sever a cats reticular formation?
HypothalamusWhat brain structure provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
Broca’s areaWhat brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?
Sensing touch; seeingParietal loves are to _____ as the occipital lobes are to ______.
Occipital LobesWhich region of the brain will a fMRI show as active when a person is looking at a photo?
Angular GyrusWhat brain area is primarily involved with reading aloud?
Seeing; hearingOccipital Lobes are to _____ as the temporal lobes are to ______.
ParietalWhich lobe of the brain receives input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
HippocampusWhat part of the limbic system plays a role in the processing of new memories?
Motor cortexAn area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements is called …
MedullaYour life would be immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the…
Breathing; walkingMedulla is to the control of ______ as the cerebellum is to the control of _____.
PonsWhat structure of the brain stem helps coordinates movements and lies above the medulla?
AmygdalaWhat part of the limbic system plays a role in emotions such as aggression and fear?
ThalamusWhat brain structure receives information from all senses except smell?
Reticular FormationWhich region of your brain stem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
Cerebral cortexThin surface layer of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebrum is called
Wernicke’s AreaWhich brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?
Selectively permeableWhen a neuron is resting and doesn’t allow positive sodium ions to pass through
ProtagonistWhen a drug mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
AntagonistWhen a drug prevents a neuron from firing
Myelin SheathWhat speeds up the neural transmission of a neuron?
Reuptake inhibitorType of drug that prevents the sending neuron from reabsorbing excess neurotransmitters
SympatheticPart of our nervous system that prepares our body for fight or flight
Sensory nueronType of neuron that sends information from our eyes to our brain
ACHLack of this can cause Alzheimer’s
DendritesPart of the neuron that receives information from a sending neuron
SynapseThe space between a sending and receiving nueron
ThresholdMinimum level of stimulation needed for a neuron to fire
Glial cellsProvide life-supporting nutrients to nerve cells
Mobilizes energy in stress situations. Raises blood sugar, speeds up heartbeat and stops digestion system.What happens to our body when the sympathetic nervous system kicks in?
Decreases heartbeat, lowers blood sugar, starts digestion system up again.What happens when the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down?
SerotoninLack of this neutransmitter can lead to depression
DopamineLack of this neurotransmitter can lead to Parkinson’s disease
Sleep, movement, neuron activity in check.What is GABA responsible for?
Peripheral nervous systemThe somatic nervous system is a part of the
Autonomic nervous systemThe sympathetic and parasympathetic make up the
rightWhat hemispheres help us understand optical illusions?
RightWhich hemisphere is responsible for facial recognition?
MedullaPart of your brain that controls breathing and heartbeat
CerebllumPart of your brain that controls working and balance
EEGBrain scan the doctor would use to study brain waves during sleep
Cerebral cortexThin layer of neural cells that cover the cerebrum
LaterialisationHemispheric specialization is also known as
PET scanBrain scan that shows the concentration of glucose in active brain refions
fMRIBrain scan that would help you determine which areas of the brain are active during specific tasks
Lips, because of all the muscular functions involved.What occupied a larger area on my sensory cortex? Lips or knee? Why?
LeftWhich hemisphere is largely responsible for speech?
BrainstemWhat brain region is the oldest?
Limbic system (Cerebral cortex)What brain region is the newest?
Frontal lobe. His whole personality changed, and his mannerisms.Phineas Gage showed damage to what area of the brain? How do you know?
Brain plasticityA blind persons sense of touch can invade their visual cortex, what is this an example of?
Angular gyrusThis is damaged if I can’t read aloud.
Frontal lobeMotor cortex is located in the…
Parietal LobeSensory cortex is located in the
HypothalamusBrain structure that works closely with the endocrine system
Wernicke’s Area“Mother is with her working for homework donuts yesterday’s telephone,” is an example of?
Nice job! You got this. If you need help, think of brain plasticity.Name a few split brain limitations.
Genes and environmentNature vs. Nurture is debating the importance of
NeurogenesisProcess for forming new neurons in the brain
46 and 23How many chromosomes does a human have? How many does a sperm cell contain?
ChromosomesWhat’s larger, chromosomes or DNA?
Identical twins have the same genes. Fraternal twins do not have the same genes.What is the difference between an identical and fraternal twins?
Basic building block of the nervous systemNeuron
Carry information to muscles and glandsMotor Neuron
Carry information to brain and spinal cordSensory neurons
brain and spinal cordCNS
Sensory and motor neuronsPNS
Help arouse the body in stressAdrenal Glands
Impairment of language, caused by left hemisphere damage to broca or wernicke’s areaAsphasia
Fibers that connect left and right brainSplit brain
Simultaneous information is processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracksDual processing
Broca’s areaSpeaking words
Angular GyrusSeeing words
Wernicke’s areaHearing words
Sends information from the left half of the visual brain to the right hemisphere. Vice versa.Left half of the brain does what (visually)