chapter 13 and 14 A&P

lobes of the brain are named for the bones superficial to them and are part of thecerebrum
shallow depressions between folds on the surface of the brain are calledsulci
in human brain anatomy, the term __ is synonymous with anteriorrostral
primary brain vesicles in correct anterior to posterior orderProsencephalon
Mesencephalon
Rhombencephalon
neural tissue develops in the embryo from a portion of theectoderm
primary vesicle from which the metencephalon arises is therhombencephalon
opening of the neural tube that is closest to the future head is thecranial neuropore
arrange the five secondary vesicles in the correct anterior to posterior orderTelencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
which secondary brain vesicle forms the portion of the adult brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamusDiencephalon
the portion of the adult brain that includes the cerebrum is derived from which secondary brain vesicletelencephalon
portion of the adult brain that includes the medulla oblongata is derived from which secondary brain vesiclemyelencephalon
portion of the adult brain that includes the cerebral peduncles, superior colliculi, and inferior colliculi is derived from which secondary brain vesiclemesencephalon
clusters of gray matter that contain neuron cell bodies and lie within masses of white matter are thecerebral nuclei
the cerebral cortex consists of __ mattergray
which of the cranial meninges consists of dense irregular connective tissue in two layers (periosteal layer and the meningeal layer)dura mater
dural venous sinuses are areas wherethe meningeal and periosteal layers separate to form large blood filled spaces
the meninx composed of a delicate web of collagen and elastic fibers is thearachnoid mater
the meninx composed of a thin layer of delicate areolar connective tissue that follows every contour of the brain surface is thepia mater
horizontally oriented fold of dura mater that separates the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum is thetentorium cerebelli
the largest of the four dural septa, this large, sickle shaped vertical fold of dura mater separates the left and right cerebral hemispheresfalx cerebri
sickle shaped vertical partition that divides the left and right cerebellar hemispheres is thefalx cerebelli
a brain ventricle located in the cerebrum is the _ ventriclelateral
the brain ventricle located in the diencephalon is the _ venticlethird
the brain ventricle located between the pons and the cerebellum is the _ ventriclefourth
the partition between the lateral ventricles is theseptum pellucidum
what is not a function of cerebrospinal fluidCFS helps to promote mitosis within neuronal tissue
cerebrospinal fluid is formed by thechoroid plexus
the amount of CSF within the brain at any given moment is approximately130 ml
excess CSF is removed from the subarachnoid space byarachnoid villi
list events in correct order for CSF flow in the CNSCSF is produced by the choroid plexus
CSF flows through the cerebral aqueduct to the 4th ventricle
CSF flows into the subarachnoid space
CSF flows into the arachnoid villi
CSF enters the blood
the blood brain barrier is made up ofastrocyte perivascular feet and capillary endothelial cells
the blood brain barrier is reduced or missing from three locations in the brain. which is not one of these locationshypothalamus
the location of conscious thought processes and the origin of all complex intellectual functions is thecerebrum
major pathway of communication between the right and left hemisphere is thecorpus callosum
most commonly, which cerebral hemisphere is responsible for controlling speechleft
which of the five cerebral lobes is the one not visible on the surface of the braininsula
one function of the brains frontal lobe isverbal communication
portion of the brain involved primarily with vision is theoccipital lobe
cerebral lateralization refers to thefunctional differences between the right and left hemispheres
the lobe that is immediately posterior to the central sulcus and that is involved in general sensory functions is theparietal lobe
lateral sulcus is superior to thetemporal lobe
the primary gustatory cortex processes info about __ and is located in the __taste
insula
the feet of the sensory homunculus are locatedmedially on the post central gyrus
association areasintegrate new sensory inputs with memories of past experiences
the gnostic area of the brain provides comprehensive understanding of a current activity. it is composed of portions of theparietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
a person with damage to the premotor cortex area that coordinates eye movementscan understand the words but cannot follow the lines on the page
association tractsconnect different regions of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere
commissural tractsextend between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
projection tractslink the cerebral cortex to the caudal brain regions and the spinal cord
the _ hemisphere is known for its involvement in categorization, symbolization, and analytical reasoningleft
which skills are associated with the right hemisphere for most individualsvisuospatial skills and music
which structures form the lentiform nucleusputamen and globus pallidus
paired, irregular masses of grey matter buried deep within the central white matter in the basal region of the cerebral hemispheres, inferior to the floor of the lateral ventricle, are thecerebral nuclei
which nucleus stimulates the muscles to produce the pattern of arm and leg movements associated with walkingcaudate nucleus
which nucleus is part of the lentiform nucleus that controls muscular movement at the subconscious levelputamen
This nucleus both excites and inhibits the activities of the thalamus to control and adjust muscle toneglobus pallidus
following a head injury, a young woman frequently loses her temper and is often depressed and otherwise “moody”. what part of the brain do you think has been damagedamygdaloid body
which part of the brain contains the epithalamus, hypothalamus, and the thalamusdiencephalon
this portion of the brain forms part of the roof of the diencephalon and covers the third ventricle. its posterior portion houses the pineal gland and the habenular nucleiepithalamus
portion of the brain secretes the hormone melatonin, which helps to regulate the bodes circadian rhythmpineal gland
which structure plays a crucial role in filtering out the irrelevant noise at a crowded party so that you can listen to someone speaking to youthalamus
which structure serves as the main relay point for sensory info that is headed to a primary sensory region of the cerebral cortexthalamus
a football player can hear his coach’s voice above the noise of the crowd and can sense an opponent about to run him down. These abilities are due to the action of what part of the brainthalamus
the brain region that exerts significant control over the endocrine system is thehypothalamus
the sleep wake cycle and the sex drive are both regulated by thehypothalamus
the tectal plate is part of the what portion of the brainbrainstem
as motor tracts descend to the brainstem they become the anterolateral surfaces of the midbrain known as thecerebral peduncles
the superior olivary complex is involved in detecting thelocation of a sound
which are the midbrain nuclei that produce dopamine, and thereby affect motor controlsubstantia nigra
the superior colliculi help you respond tovisual stimuli, for example, when you turn toward a bright flash of light
what portion of the brain contains the posterior part of the fourth ventriclemedulla oblongata
axons of the corticospinal tract cross the brainstem at thedecussation of the pyramids in the medulla oblongata
the vasomotor center is an important regulator of _ and is located in the _blood pressure
medulla oblongata
the numerous folds of the cerebellar cortex are calledfolia
which part of the brain contains the arbor vitaecerebellum
the middle cerebral peduncles connect the cerebellum to thepons
portion of the brain ensures that skeletal muscle contraction follows the correct pattern leading to smooth, coordinated movementscerebellum
which portion of the brain adjusts skeletal muscle activity to maintain equilibrium and posturecerebellum
the __ is composed of multiple structures that collaboratively process and experience emotionslimbic system
the limbic system allowsprocessing and experiencing of emotion
the part of the limbic system involved in storing memories and forming long term memory is thehippocampus
during a mugging, a person experiences an extreme level of fear. What portion of the limbic system is responsible for this and other emotional statesamygdaloid body
what is the name of the brainstem sensory area that contains axons that project to the cerebral cortex to arouse us from sleepreticular activating system
damage to which lobe of the brain has been most frequently associated with personality abnormalitiesfrontal
cognition is generally thought to be governed byassociation areas of the cerebrum
the advances in higher order brain functioning that happen from birth to age five correlate withan increase in total brain size and complexity
a memory that has lasted over a weekend is described aslong term memory
formation of new memories involves the _, and storage of long term memories primarily involves the _hippocampus
association areas of the cerebrum
your memories of the sights and sounds of your elementary school are probably stored inassociation cortex areas of your cerebrum
interpretation of emotion is governed by the _, and expression of emotion is governed by the _limbic system
prefrontal cortex
what is the most anterior cranial nerveolfactory
a patient visits her doctor and explains that since being hit on the cheek with a hockey puck she has been suffering from dry eyes and a dry mouth. its apparent to the doctor that since both lacrimal secretion and salivary secretion are affected, there may be damage to the _ nervefacial
what cranial nerve is composed of only motor fibersVI
the cranial nerve responsible for movement of the medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles is the _ nerveoculomotor
cranial nerve that innervates smooth muscle and glands of the heart, lungs, larynx, trachea, and most abdominal organs is the _ nervevagus
cranial nerve that passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is the _ nerveolfactory
bell palsy is a condition characterized by the paralysis of facial muscles, eyelid droop, and sagging at the corners of the mouth. What nerve is affected in this conditionfacial
correct order for the parts of the spinal cord, from superior to inferiorcervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral
coccygeal
a typical spinal cord in an adult is16-18 inches long
in adults, the spinal cord is a different length than the vertebral canal, and most of the lumbar part of the spinal cord is withinthoracic vertebrae
the inferior tip of the spinal cord is the _ partcoccygeal
what is the thin strand of pia mater that helps to anchor the spinal cord to the coccyxfilum terminale
the spinal cord part with the largest diameter is the _ partcervical
the tapered, conical inferior end of the spinal cord is called the conusmedullaris
each side of the spinal cord gives rise to _ cervical nerveseight
the most inferior spinal nerve isCo1
what statement accurately describes spinal nerveseach spinal nerve is mixed in that it contains some sensory axons and some motor axons
what space associated with the spinal cord meninges contains areolar connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose connective tissueepidural space
what space associated with the spinal cord meninges contains cerebrospinal fluidsubarachnoid space
in a lumbar puncture (spinal tap), fluid is extracted from thesubarachnoid space
the most delicate of the meninges consists of elastic and collagen fibers and is known as thepia mater
posterior horns of the spinal cord containaxons of sensory neurons and cell bodies of interneurons
the lateral horns of the spinal cord containcell bodies of autonomic motor neurons
the structure contains unmyelinated axons and serves as a communication route between the right and left sides of the gray matter in the spinal cordgray commissure
nuclei within the gray matter of the spinal cord that receive info from sensory receptors such as pain or pressure receptors in the skin are _ nucleisomatic sensory
the _ nuclei within the gray matter of the spinal cord send nerve impulses to skeletal musclessomatic motor
these nuclei are located in the lateral horns and innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandsautonomic motor nuclei
in sum, there are _ pairs of spinal nerves31
large section of spinal white matter that is found between the posterior gray horns is known as the posteriorfuniculus
what accurately compares sections of spinal white mattera fasciculus is smaller than a funiculus
a conduction pathway consists of atract and a nucleus
what accurately describes sensory and motor pathwayssensory pathways terminate in the brain, and motor pathways terminate at effectors
since most pathways decussate, each side of the brain processes info from the _ side of the bodycontralateral
_ pathways have peripheral primary neurons and central secondary and tertiary neuronssensory
neurons of the thalamus that are part of the sensory conduction pathways are consideredtertiary neurons
info about temp, propioception and pressure from skin, joints, and muscles is conveyed bysomatosensory pathways
axons of primary sensory neurons make synaptic connections withsecondary neurons in the CNS
the fascicles cuneatus is part of theposterior funiculus- medial lemniscal pathway
the medial lemniscus iswhite matter in the brainstem that conducts info about proprioception and touch
info about pain and temp is conveyed to the brain by way of theanterolateral pathway
anterior spinocerebellar tract conducts signals aboutproprioception from the lower limbs
neurons that directly innervate skeletal muscles are calledlower motor neurons
function of upper motor neurons is toexcite or inhibit lower motor neurons
the direct motor pathway originates in themotor cortex of the cerebral cortex
the lateral corticospinal tracts include a _ of the upper motor neuron axons that pass through the medulla, and they govern control ofmajority
muscles used for finely controlled movements
axons of the corticobulbar tractsdo not pass through the spinal cord, as they synapse with lower motor neurons in brainstem cranial nuclei
motor pathways are _ tracts that control _descending
effectors
which of the rami is much smallerposterior ramus
what are not spinal nerve brancheslateral rami
a posterior root containssensory axons only
what structures is closest to the spinal cordposterior rootlets
the third cervical nerve exits the vertebral column through theintervertebral foramen between c2 and c3 vertebrae
second thoracic spinal nerve exits the spinal column through theintervertebral foramen between vertebrae t2 and t3
if a patient experiences numbness in the boundaries of a dermatome, it is suggestive of damage toa spinal nerve
posterior rams of a typical spinal nerve innervates thedeep muscles of the back and the skin of the back
anterior rams of a typical spinal nerve innervates theanterior and lateral trunk and the limbs
a network rami of t1-t11 are calledintercostal nerves
the plexuses that lie on either side of the neck are the _ plexusescervical
if a person suffers a thorax-crushing injury and is unable to breathe properly, you would suspect that this nerve was damagedphrenic nerve
plexus that supplies the upper limbs is the _ plexusbrachial
what list explains the components of the brachial plexus in correct order starting with the most medialrami
trunks
divisions
cords
within the axilla, axons of the neurons are organized withinthree cords, posterior, medial, and lateral
nerve that innervates the deltoid muscle and receives sensory input from the superolateral lateral arm is theaxillary nerve
following an injury to his arm, a patient complains that he has no sensations from the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and part of the ring finer. what nerve do you suspect to be damagedmedian nerve
following an injury to his arm, a patient complains that he has lost the ability to flex his elbow and supinate his forearm. what nerve do you suspect he has damagedradial nerve
a person suffering from carpal tunnel syndrome has lost function of themedian nerve
two of the nerves of the lumbar plexus are thefemoral and obturator nerves
nerve responsible for innervation of the quadriceps femurs muscle is the _ nervefemoral
the largest and longest nerve in the body is the _ nervesciatic
this nerve helps to plant the foot and receives sensory signals from the skin of the soletibial nerve
spinal nerves that give rise to sacral plexus areL4-S4
where the sciatic nerve splits, it branches directly to thetibial and common fibular nerves
reflexes are described asrapid and involuntary
correct order for the events that occur during a reflexstimulus activates a receptor
impulse travels through sensory neuron to the CNS
info is processed by interneurons
motor neuron transmits impulse to effector
effector responds
reflex arc in which both the receptor and effector organs of the reflex are on the same side of the spinal cord isipsilateral
late one night you are leaving the science building during a snowstorm. as you approach your car your right foot suddenly slips on a patch of ice. your left leg immediately stiffens as you try to regain your balance. the reflex action you relied upon is ancontralateral reflex
what type of reflex occurs with the smallest delaymonosynaptic
simple knee jerk reflex is an example of an _ reflexmonosynaptic
stepping of a piece of glass would most likely invoke a _ reflexwithdrawal
if someone steps on a sharp object with their right foot it will lead topolysynaptic reflexes involving contraction of the right hamstring and left quadriceps
for many reflexes, including the stretch reflex, the excitation of a muscle leads toinhibition of motor neurons of its antagonist
golgi tendon reflexprevents skeletal muscles from tensing excessively
monosynaptic reflex that monitors and regulates skeletal muscles length is a _ reflexstretch
a diminished reflex response that may indicate damage to a segment of the spinal cord is an _ reflexhypoactive
clonus often accompanies a _ reflex after damage has occurred to the brainhyperactive
when the achilles tendon is tapped or the bottom of the foot is stroked, the reflexive response is that the footplantar flexes
the embryonic feature that gives rise to the anterior and lateral horns of gray matter is the _ platebasal
adult spinal cord extends inferiorly from the brain through the vertebral canal and ends at the level of the _ vertebraL1
nerves projecting inferiorly from the spinal cord are collectively called thecauda equina
the cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in theposterior root ganglion
what spinal nerve counts is incorrectthoracic nerves= 8 pairs