Chapter 40 & 41

An increase; a drop______ in carbon dioxide in your red blood cells, which causes ________ in pH, causes your breathing to speed up.
a decrease in oxygen contentThe sun shining on a tidal pool during a hot day heats the water. As some water evaporates, the pool becomes saltier, causing
pH decreases, causes breathing to increaseWhat happens to pH and breathing rate during exercise?
water contains much less O2 than air per unit vol.Gas exchange is more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs because
diffusionCountercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
as bicarbonate ionsMost carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.
acidicBy picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.
combined w/ hemoglobinIn the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.
increases the presence of high concentrations of oxygenThe amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin _________.
an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin to bind oxygen moleculesAn increase from pH 7.1 to pH 7.5 around hemoglobin causes
myoglobinAn “internal reservoir” of oxygen in rested muscle is found in oxygen molecules bound to
pHThe Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in
converted to bicarbonate ions by an enzyme in red blood cellsMost of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is
hemoglobinHydrogen ions produced within human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering plasma pH because they bind to
4What is the maximum number of molecules of oxygen that bar-headed goose hemoglobin can bind to?
53 mm HgWhat is the approximate partial pressure of oxygen on top of Mount Everest?
90%What is the approximate oxygen saturation percentage of bar-headed goose hemoglobin on top of Mount Everest?
Fewer oxygen molecules will bind to hemoglobinIn order to fly over Mount Everest, bar-headed geese must fly higher and increase their altitude. What will happen in bar-headed geese as they increase their altitude?
Bar headed geese hemoglobin can bind more oxygen at higher altitudes than human hemoglobinWhat statement about the data in the graph is true?
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at any partial pressure of O2How does the dissociation curve for fetal hemoglobin compare to that for maternal hemoglobin?
Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of oxygen from mother to fetus.Which hypothesis best explains this difference?
2 (top of the ocean)Which zone produces the most global oxygen?
4 (between bottom and top)Which zone has the lowest biomass per unit of volume?
abyssalWhich marine zone is expected to have the lowest rates of primary productivity (photosynthesis)?
When only urchins were removed, limpets increased in abundance and reduced seaweed cover.Compared to the control (red line), in which both sea urchins and limpets are present, removing limpets alone (blue line) did not have much effect. This might suggest that limpets have little effect on seaweed distribution. However, seaweed cover increased much more when both urchins and limpets were removed (purple line) than when only urchins were removed (green line).

How might you explain this result?

predation & competitionWhich of the following are important biotic factors that can affect the structure and organization of biological communities?
investigate various biotic and abiotic factors unique to high altitudeA certain species of pine tree survives only in scattered locations at elevations above 2,800 m in the western United States. To understand why this tree grows only in these specific places, an ecologist should
robinsWhich of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span?

robins
humans
elephants
grasses
oysters

adultsOyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____.
grassesWhich of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?

grasses
humans
cats
robins
elephants

elephantsWhich of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?

grasses
oysters
robins
elephants
cats

sharksThe mark-recapture method would be best for sampling a population of _____.
EWhich curve best describes survivorship in marine molluscs?
AWhich curve best describes survivorship in elephants?
DWhich curve best describes survivorship in a marine crustacean that molts?
AWhich curve best describes survivorship in humans who live in developed nations?
Survivorship can only decrease; therefore, this curve could not happen in nature.Which statement best explains survivorship curve B?
all of the redwood trees that live in a forestWhich of the following is an example of a population?
the size of the area in which they liveTo determine the density of a rabbit population, you would need to know the number of rabbits and __________.
clumpedIn wild populations, individuals most often show a _____ pattern of dispersion.
I & II onlyA population is correctly defined as having which of the following characteristics?

I. inhabits the same general area
II. belongs to the same species
III. possesses a constant and uniform density and dispersion

competitive interaction between individuals of the same population.Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most often associated with
red squirrels, animals that actively defend territoriesWhich of the following groups would be most likely to exhibit uniform dispersion?
counting the number of moss plants in 1-m2 quadratsWhich of the following methods would most accurately measure the density of the population being studied?

counting the number of zebras from airplane observations.
counting the number of prairie dog burrows per hectare
counting the number of moss plants in 1-m2 quadrats
counting the number of coyote droppings per hectare
counting the number of times a 1-km transect is intersected by tracks of red squirrels after a snowfall

territorial songbirds in a mature forest during mating seasonWhich of the following is the best natural example of uniform distribution?

mushrooms growing on the floor of an old-growth forest
bees collecting pollen in a wildflower meadow
territorial songbirds in a mature forest during mating season
a cultivated cornfield in the Midwest
snails in an intertidal zone at low tide

homogeneous chemical and physical factors in the environmentWhich of the following choices would most likely promote random distribution?

homogeneous chemical and physical factors in the environment
territorial species
species that secrete chemicals to attract or inhibit other individuals
flocking and schooling behaviors
spacing during the breeding season

Many invertebrates molt in order to grow, and they are vulnerable to predation during their “soft shell” stage.Why do some invertebrates, such as lobsters, show a “stair-step” survivorship curve?
a constant death rate over the organism’s life spanWhich of the following describes a Type II survivorship curve?
Births and immigrationWhich processes increase a population’s size?
TrueTrue or false? Factors that determine the per capita rate of increase of a population include the age of breeding and the number of offspring produced each year.
Maximum number of individuals in a populationWhich factor does not affect a habitat’s carrying capacity?

Number of nesting sites.
Availability of food.
Intensity of predation.
Maximum number of individuals in a population.

ΔNΔt=rmaxN(K−N)KWhich equation represents the logistic growth rate of a population?
Density-independent growth is also known as exponential growthWhich of the following statements about density-independent growth is true?

The per-capita rate of increase may exceed rmax during density-independent growth.

Density-independent growth can continue indefinitely in nature.

A population that is experiencing density-independent growth levels off at the environment’s carrying capacity.

Density-independent growth is also known as exponential growth.

Young populations with few individualsUnder which of the following conditions would a population most likely experience exponential growth?
If N is greater than K, the population will shrinkWhich of the following statements about a population experiencing logistic growth is true?
curve starting off slow then growing rapidlyWhich of the following graphs illustrates the population growth curve of single bacterium growing in a flask of ideal medium at optimum temperature over a 24-hour period?
per capita population growth rateIn the models that describe population growth, r stands for _____.
carrying capacityThe number of individuals that a particular habitat can support with no degradation of that habitat is called _____
rNExponential growth of a population is represented by dN/dt =
64Starting from a single individual, what is the size of a population of bacteria that reproduce by binary fission every 20 minutes at the end of a 2-hour time period? (Assume unlimited resources and no mortality.)
b=m or r=0Which of the following equations represents zero population growth?
logged, because the disturbed forest affords more resources for increased specific populations to growConsider two forests: one is an undisturbed old-growth forest and the other has recently been logged. In which forest are species likely to experience exponential growth, and why?
rN. K−N/K.Logistic growth of a population is represented by dN/dt =
The population growth rate will approach zero.As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation?
the population growth rate slows dramatically as N approaches K.In models of logistic population growth,
the maximum population size that a particular environment can support.Carrying capacity is
competition for resourcesWhich of the following causes populations to shift most quickly from an exponential to a logistic population growth?
a “J,” increasing with each generation.Imagine that you are managing a large game ranch. You know from historical accounts that a species of deer used to live there, but they have been extirpated. You decide to reintroduce them. After doing some research to determine what might be an appropriately sized founding population, you do so. You then watch the population increase for several generations, and graph the number of individuals (vertical axis) against the number of generations (horizontal axis). The graph will likely appear as
The three bars representing male survival would all have similar heights, but female survival would still decline with increasing brood size.The males of some bird species provide no parental care. If this were true for the Eurasian kestrel, how would the experimental results differ from those shown?
Hare numbers typically peaked slightly before lynx numbers.What do you observe about the relative timing of the peaks in lynx numbers and hare numbers?
The lynx depend on the hares for food, but there is a delay between increased food availability and increased reproduction by the lynx.What might explain the observation that hare numbers typically peaked slightly before lynx numbers?
Sea urchins have the greatest influence on seaweed distribution.Scientists in Australia wanted to know the relationship between sea urchins, limpets, and the distribution of seaweed. Both sea urchins and limpets are herbivores that graze on seaweed. What do the data shown in this figure indicate about the pattern and distribution of seaweeds?
exponential than carrying capacity then curvyWhich of the following graphs illustrates the growth over several seasons of a population of snowshoe hares that were introduced to an appropriate habitat also inhabited by predators in northern Canada?
floodingWhich of the following is regarded as a density-independent factor in the growth of natural populations?

intraspecific competition
flooding
predation
interspecific competition
emigration

negative feedbackResource competition, territoriality, disease, and toxic wastes are some of the factors that provide _____ and help regulate population.
offspring with good chances of survivalWhich of the following is an expected characteristic of K-selected populations?
an old growth forestIn which of the following situations would you expect to find the largest number of K-selected individuals?

an old-growth forest
a newly emergent volcanic island
a shifting sand dune community of south Lake Michigan
South Florida after a hurricane
a recently abandoned agricultural field in Ohio

intraspecific competition for nutrientsWhich of the following is most likely to contribute to density-dependent regulation of populations?

the removal of toxic waste by decomposers
floods
intraspecific competition for nutrients
fires
earthquakes

Density-dependent factors lead to fewer births and increased mortality.Why do populations grow more slowly as they approach their carrying capacity?
earthquakesWhich of the following could be a density-independent factor limiting human population growth?

earthquakes
famines
the number of homes that can fit in a city
plagues

The removal of Balanus shows that the realized niche of Chthamalus is smaller than its fundamental niche.Which of the following statements is a valid conclusion of this experiment?
competitive exclusion and distribution of barnacle species.Connell conducted this experiment to learn more about
-/-Chthamalus and Balanus belong to the same trophic level. Based on this information and their distributions in the low tide zone in Connell’s experiment, what is the best way to represent the interaction between the two species?
ecological nicheAccording to the principle of competitive exclusion, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.
benefit…harmedOf the choices below, which best describes the effect predation has on the predator/prey organisms involved in the relationship?
Batesian mimicryThe term used to describe a harmless organism resembling a harmful one is _____.
mutualismCellulose-digesting microorganisms live in the guts of termites and ruminant mammals. The microorganisms have a home and food, and their hosts gain more nutrition from their meals. This relationship is an example of _____.
Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species.Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive exclusion?

Bird species generally do not compete for nesting sites.

The random distribution of one competing species will have a positive impact on the population growth of the other competing species.

Natural selection tends to increase competition between related species.

Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species.

Two species with the same fundamental niche will exclude all other competing species.

slight variations in a species niche that allow similar species to coexistWhich of the following best describes resource partitioning?
resource partitioningAs you study two closely related predatory insect species, the two-spot and the three-spot avenger beetles, you notice that each species seeks prey at dawn in areas without the other species. However, where their ranges overlap, the two-spot avenger beetle hunts at night and the three-spot hunts in the morning. When you bring them into the laboratory and isolate the two different species, you discover that the offspring of both species are nocturnal. You have discovered an example of
sympatric populations of species with similar ecological niches.Resource partitioning would be most likely to occur between
a walking stick, which is an insect that resembles a twigWhich of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?

highly contrasting bands on a coral snake

bright markings of a viceroy butterfly’s wings

a walking stick, which is an insect that resembles a twig

orange or yellow colors of an insect-pollinated flower’s petals

brown or gray color of tree bark

a nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snakeWhich of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?

a snapping turtle that uses its tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish

an insect that resembles a twig

a butterfly that resembles a leaf

a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment

a nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake

parasitismDwarf mistletoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest trees. They obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of the trees. The trees derive no known benefits from the dwarf mistletoes and can be harmed if nutrients and water are scarce in the environment. Which of the following best describes the interactions between dwarf mistletoes and trees?
mutualismEvidence shows that some grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of the following terms would best describe this plant-herbivore interaction?
resource partitioningWhite-breasted nuthatches and Downy woodpeckers both eat insects that hide in the furrows of bark in hardwood trees. The Downy woodpecker searches for insects by hunting from the bottom of the tree trunk toward the top, whereas the white-breasted nuthatch searches from the top of the trunk down. These hunting behaviors best illustrate which of the following ecological concepts?
Interaction increases the survival and reproductive rates of mutualistic species.Which statement best describes the evolutionary significance of mutualism?
facilitationWhich of the following terms is used by ecologists to describe the community interaction in which one organism makes the environment more suitable for another organism?
+/0What interactions exist between the cattle egret and grazing cattle?
-/-What interactions exist between a lion pride and a hyena pack if they utilize the same food sources?
+/+What interactions exist between a bee and a flower?
+/-What interactions exist between a tick on a dog and the dog?
+/+What interactions exist between cellulose-digesting organisms in the gut of a termite and the termite?
+/+What interactions exist between mycorrhizae and evergreen tree roots?
producersIn an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
detritivoreAn earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
secondary consumerWhen a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
primary consumerA cow eating grass is an example of a _____.
tertiary consumerA human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.
BExamine the diagram of a hypothetical food web in the figure. The arrows represent the transfer of energy between the various trophic levels. Which letter represents an organism that could be a primary producer?
its food sourceAn organism’s “trophic level” refers to _____.
whose absence would cause major disruption in a communityKeystone species are those species _____.
keystone speciesIn a tide pool, 15 species of invertebrates were reduced to 8 after one species was removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
Elephants exhibit a disproportionate influence on the structure of the community relative to their abundance.Elephants are not the most dominant species in African grasslands, yet they influence community structure. The grasslands contain scattered woody plants, but they are kept in check by the uprooting activities of the elephants. If the elephants are taken away, the grasslands convert to forests or to shrublands. The newly growing forests support fewer species than the previous grasslands. Which of the following describes why elephants are the keystone species in this scenario?
Invasive species are not held in check by the predators and agents of disease that have always been in place for native species.Which of the following is a likely explanation for why invasive species take over communities into which they have been introduced?
removing many of the organisms at the next higher trophic level so that the struggling trophic level below can recover.Biomanipulation can best be described as
remove the fishIn a lake with three trophic levels (fish, zooplankton, algae), how might an algal bloom be prevented?
trophic structureThe feeding relationships between species in a community is called
energy-containing food moleculesWhat do plants produce that supports the higher trophic levels of the community?
Grass grows on a sand dune, is replaced by shrubs, and then by trees.Which of the following best illustrates ecological succession?

A mouse eats seeds, and an owl eats the mouse.

Grass grows on a sand dune, is replaced by shrubs, and then by trees.

Introduced pheasants increase, and native quail populations disappear.

Decomposition in soil releases nitrogen that plants can use.

Overgrazing causes a nutrient loss from soil.

Habitats are opened up for less competitive species.Why do moderate levels of disturbance result in an increase in community diversity?
lichensWhat are usually the first photosynthetic organisms to colonize during primary succession?
spruce and hemlockDuring primary succession at Glacier Bay, what is the composition of the oldest communities on well-drained slopes?
AWhich island would likely have the greatest species diversity?
CWhich island would likely exhibit the most impoverished species diversity?
as we travel southward from the North Pole to the equator.Species richness increases
speciation rateWhat is an evolutionary factor that influences the species richness of a community?
trophic structureThe feeding relationships among the species in a community determine the community’s __________.