AP World History. Chapter 7: Margins and Documents, Chavíns and the Incas, Tribute System

Similarities and Differences Among Three Major Continents of the World-Initially all three had gatherers and hunters
-All had independent agricultural revolutions that occurred at different times
-All developed civilization in regions where agriculture took hold
-All developed civilizations independently (America and Africa fewer in # and smaller)
-Populations of Africa and the Americas were much smaller than Eurasia
-While Africa and Eurasia exchanged ideas, crops, and animals, the Americas were completely isolated
-Metallurgy in the Americas was less developed than in Eurasia
How did the History of Meroë and Axum Reflect Interaction with Neighboring Civilizations?-Meroe’s wealth and military power were in part derived from trade
-Axum became a large state in part to its participation in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean commerce and the taxes that flowed from this commerce
-Meroe and Axum both created their own distinct writing
-Meroitic script eventually took the place of Egyptian style writing
-Axum’s script, Geez, was derived from South Arabian models
-Axum adopted Christianity from the Roman world in the fourth century C.E., primarily through Egyptian influence.
-The region once controlled by Meroe also adopted Christianity in the 340’s following Meroe’s decline.
Ways Humans Adapted to Travel on Long Distance Trade Routes (AP Test Tip)-Example: such as the Berbers introducing camels into the Sahara
The Trans Sahara and Indian Ocean Trade Routes (map on pg. 285)-The following are “must know” items that frequently appear on the AP exam:
~Ocean trade routes: Trans Sahara & Indian Ocean Trade routes
~Geographic placement of key cities ex: Timbuktu, Alexandria, Jenne-jeno (all found on this map)
Need to Know Examples of Environmental Damage that Led to the Decline of Empires (AP Test Tip)-One example in this chapter is the Meroe and deforestation discussed on page 286 last full paragraph
-Meroe declined in part due to deforestation
-Due to the need to have wood to make charcoal to melt iron for smelt
Know Examples of Changes in Farming Techniques in this Era (AP Test Tip)-Axum’s use of plows vs. digging sticks
Examples of Monumental Structures Built by Second Wave Era Civilizations-The Columns of Axum: Dating to the time when Axum first encountered Christianity (300-500 CE), this column, measuring some seventy-nine feet tall, probably served as a funeral monument for the kingdom’s ancient rules.
How Does the Experience of the Niger Valley Challenge Conventional Notions of “Civilization”?-Witnessed creation of larger cities with the apparent absence of corresponding state structure
-The cities were not:
like the city-states of ancient Mesopotamia, nor were they encompassed within some larger imperial system
Most closely early cities of the Indus valley civilization,
complex urban centers operated without the coercive authority of a centralized state
Geographic and Cultural Meaning of Mesoamerica

-Stretches from Central Mexico to Northern Central America

-Distinct region bound together by distinct elements of a common culture:
~Intensive agricultural technology
~Based their economies on market exchange
~Practiced religion based on a similar collection of male and female dieties
~Time as a cosmic cycle of creation and destruction
~Ritual calendar of 260 days,
~Human sacrifice
~Monumental ceremonial centers
~Hieroglyphic writing

With What Eurasian Civilizations Might the Mayan be Compared?-Because of its fragmented political structure
-Mayan Civilization more closely resembles:
The competing city states of Mesopotamia or Classical Greece instead of the imperial structures of Rome, Persia, or China
Similarities of the Mayans and Greeks-City states
-Frequent warfare with neighbors
-A noble class
-Monumental architecture
-Written language
-Artistic expression
In What Ways Did Teotihuacan Shape the History of Mesoamerica?-Military conquests brought many regions into its political orbit and made it a presence in the Maya Civilization
-Center of a large trade network
-Architectural and artistic styles of the city were imitated across Mesoamerica
What Kind of Influence Did Chavin Exert in the Andes Region?-Imitated in the region:
~Architecture, sculpture, pottery, religious images, painted textiles-Pilgrimage site
-Possible training site for initiates from distant corners of the region
-Temples were remodeled to resemble those of Chavin as far as 3 weeks away via llama caravan ( in many cases with locally inspired variations)
-Chavin religious cult provided for the first time and for several centuries economic and cultural integration to much of the Peruvian Andes

What Features of the Moche Life Characterized it as a Civilization?-Dominated 250 mile stretch of Peru’s northern coast
-Incorporated 13 river valleys
-Flourished for 700 in 100 C.E.
-Economy routed in complex irrigation system that required constant maintenance
-Politically civ. was governed by warrior priests elite who sometimes lived atop huge pyramids years beginning
-Artist skills were remarkable and reflected in the elaborate burials given to rulers.
-Renowned for: metalworking, pottery, weaving, and painting
Promotion of Art and Artisanship by Elites-Moche had a superb skill as craftspeople most of this is reflected by the culture of the Moche elite through artistic depictions:
~Ceramic pottery having naturalistic portraits of noble lords and rulers
~Battle scenes showing warriors confronting their enemies with raised clubs
~Erotic images people and the gods
~Grotesque images of Gods-We know less about the daily lives of farmers, fisherman, and weavers, traders, construction workers, and servants whose labor made that elite culture possible

What Was the Significance of Wari and Tiwanaku in the History of Andean Civilization?-Political integration and common cultural traits for the entire Andean region
-Culture: Styles of pottery and textiles spread well beyond their region that was under their direct political control
-The Inca drew upon their imperial model
-The Inca also used similar statecraft to build their empire
-The Inca also used similar styles of dress and artistic impression
-The Inca claimed Tiwanaku as their place of origin
Similarities and Differences civilization of Africa’s and the America’s-Similiarities:
~Agricultural societies
~Social hierarchies
~Urban centers
~Monumental architecture
~All ultimately collapsed-Differences:
~Those in Northwest and North Africa borrowed from their Eurasian neighbors
~The Niger river valley civilization developed large urban centers without formal states
~The Maya developed writing
~Maya and Moche practiced human sacrifice

In What Ways Did the Arrival of the Bantu-speaking Peoples Stimulate Cross-cultural Interaction?-They brought agriculture and iron to the regions of Africa south of the equator
-This enabled larger numbers of people to live in a smaller area than was possible before their arrival
-Brought parasitic and infectious diseases that the hunting and gathering people had little immunity
-Many Bantu languages have the distinctive “clicks” in their local dialects that they adopted from the now extinct hunting peoples
-Bantu peoples exchanged with the forest dwelling Batwa (pygmies)
-Batwa adopted Bantu languages while maintaining a non-agricultural lifestyle and a separate identity
Ancestor Veneration-The power of dead ancestors might be accessed through rituals of sacrifice… Especially cattle
-Supernatural power from ancient heroes, ancestors, or nature spirits resided in charms which could be activated by proper rituals
-Representations of women often ancestral figures were frequent in the wood carving of Bantu speaking Luba people of Central Africa
-Many depict women holding their chest, a gesture signifying devotion respect and secret knowledge
In What Ways Were the Histories of the Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound Builders Similar to Each Other?-Both:
~Settlements were linked into trading networks
~They participated in long distance exchange
~Created structures to track the heavens
~Both adopted maize from Mesoamerica-Mound Builders:
~Independent agricultural revolution
~Continued to supplement their diets by gathering and hunting until Maize arrived from Mesoamerica after 800 C.E.
~Larger monumental agriculture in burial grounds and earthwork
~Largest civilizations like Cahokia were larger than the pueblos

-Ancestral Pueblo People:
~Received Maize fromt the Mesoamericans much earlier
~They settled into agriculture earlier in their development
~Developed Kiva’s for ceremonial centers and network of roads that may have had religious significance
~Started later and did not last as longer

Document Questions: 7.1 #1-Chief trading port for the Axumite Kingdom and is the primary conduit through which seaborne trade between Asum, India, and the Roman world take place
-The port provides access to Coloe were Ivory is traded
-Island fisherman named Fish eaters take tortoise shells to trade
7.2 #2: What evidence does the Periplus provide about Axum’s cultural and economic ties to the larger world?-Axumite ruler was acquainted with Greek literature
-Economic – Axum is an active participant in long distance trade with both the Roman Empire and India
7.2 #3: How would you describe the point of view from which the document was written?-Successful conquering monarch seeking to record his military conquests, and his efforts to est. safe sea lanes and new land trade routes
7.2 #4: What techniques of Imperial control does the document reveal?-The monarch used warfare to conquer regions
-He seized resources in some instances half of what they possessed
-Surrender the best of their young men and women with their sons and daughters and all that they possessed
-Instituted then a tribute system
7.2 #5: How might you account for the obvious Greek influence?-Through trade through the Nile and the Red Sea
-The throne and Greek inscription may be due to the Axumite ruler trying to legitimize his recent rise of power using symbols of authority from the well established Roman World
7.5 #1: How would you describe the pattern of exchange described in this document?-Exchange was based on barter even though one of the commodities exchanged was gold.
-It was neither state driven nor fully a system of provate enterprise.
-The King ordered the mission and as many as 500 private merchants accompanied the excursion
-The system allowed for trade between peoples who did not know each other’s languages, as well as trade security between peoples on a region without a state to regulate to protect the trade
7.5 #2: Who, if anyone, had an upper hand in this trade? Was it conducted between politically equal parties?-No party could be said to have a clear upper hand because it was done through bargaining and mutual consent on price
-Only one side done through the state there was no evidence of political sophistication on the part of the local peoples
7.5 #3: What purposes did this trade serve for the people who mined and “sold” the gold?-It allowed them to trade for meat, salt, and iron
-Provided a means for trading gold which was common in their region, for goods from another region where gold was valued more highly
7.5 #4: Beyond the peaceful trade for gold described here, what other purposes did this region serve for Axum?-It was a source for slaves and for water from the Nile, as well as a place to which the King of the Axumites banished people
(pg. 315) #4: In what ways might the Axum be viewed as a smaller-scale version if the second-wave civilization of Eurasia? In what ways did it differ from them?-Similarities:
~Strong centralized government
~Productive agricultural society
~Urban centers
~Monumental architecture,
~An empire made up of conquered subjects from which tribute was extracted
~Active participation in long distance trade
~Adoption of a major world religion-Differences:
~very little in writing in comparison and much smaller