Which of the following is a form of associative learning?all of the alternatives are correct
If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates:associative learning.
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n):conditioned stimulus.
John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether:academic achievement is influenced by a positive selfconcept.
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a:CS.
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n):conditioned stimulus.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):unconditioned stimulus.
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor’s cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the CR.your fear today
Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone:extinction.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.CS; US
Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is:the predictability of an association.
The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.cognitive processes
Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:novel tastes.
A person adhering to the cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on:an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.
Cognitive processes are:important in both classical and operant conditioning.
Laurie’s thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:operant conditioning.
In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?operant conditioning
The type of learning associated with Skinner is:operant conditioning.
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ in order to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.shaping
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n):discriminative stimulus.
Pet cats who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their cat food illustrate:classical conditioning.
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:associative learning.
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:Pavlov.
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:observable behavior.
In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):unconditioned stimulus.
You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog’s salivation is a(n) ________.CS; CR
Months after she was raped, Courtney’s heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney’s anxiety.conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous recovery refers to the:reappearance, after a rest pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:biological predispositions.
The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by:Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.
Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that:May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.
An organism learns associations between events it doesn’t control during the process of:classical conditioning.
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:operant conditioning.
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:shaping.
Which of the following is an example of shaping?A parrot is rewarded first for making any sound, then for making a sound similar to “Laura,” and then for “speaking” its owner’s name.
During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result, the ________ seems to disappear.US; CR
In Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning of a dog’s salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred:when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.
The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism’s ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.cognitive
Garcia and Koelling’s studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by:biological predispositions.
Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves:cognitive processes.
The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.Pavlov; Skinner
Shaping is a(n) ________ technique for ________ a behavior.operant; establishing
According to the text, learning involves:a change in behavior due to experience.
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:operant conditioning.
John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n):behaviorist.
In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the tone was initially a(n) ________ stimulus; after it was paired with meat, it became a(n) ________ stimulus.neutral; conditioned
In Garcia and Koelling’s studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate:taste with sickness.
A Skinner box is a(n):chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
Putting on your coat when it is cold outside is a behavior that is maintained by:negative reinforcement.
An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n):reinforcer.
A response that leads to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus is one being:negatively reinforced.
A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ________.conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers be presented in relation to the desired response?immediately after
In order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use:immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?applause for an excellent piano recital
Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.intermittent
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.variable-interval
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.variable-ratio
From a casino owner’s viewpoint, which of the following jackpot-payout schedules would be the most desirable for reinforcing customer use of a slot machine?variable-ratio
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.fixed-ratio
The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a ________ schedule.variable-ratio
Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of:cognitive processes.
After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.biological predispositions
After exploring a complicated maze for several days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very few errors when food was placed in the goal box for the first time. This performance illustrates:latent learning.
Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. In this instance, Yuri’s behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George’s behavior was a reflection of ________.intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting:prosocial behavior.
Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.predicts
Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience. This best illustrates the impact of:observational learning.
Which of the following is an example of reinforcement?All of the above are examples.
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason’s running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.negative
You teach your dog to fetch the paper by giving him a cookie each time he does so. This is an example of:operant conditioning.
A word of praise is to a soothing backrub as ________ is to ________.conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.conditioned
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.variable-ratio
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul’s telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michael’s is reinforced on a ________ schedule.fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. Although at one time her mother granted every request, she now does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will:continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
You are expecting an important letter in the mail. As the regular delivery time approaches you glance more and more frequently out the window, searching for the letter carrier. Your behavior in this situation typifies that associated with which schedule of reinforcement?fixed-interval
On an intermittent reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is given:only some of the time.
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves:extrinsic motivation.
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit:intrinsic motivation.
It’s easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.biological predispositions
Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior.cognitive processes
Mrs. Ramirez often tells her children that it is important to buckle their seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does so herself. Her children will probably learn to:tell others it is important to use seat belts but rarely use them themselves.
In promoting observational learning, the most effective models are those that we perceive as:any of the above.
Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.decreases; increases
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.conditioned
During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin’s behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.fixed-interval
The taste of food and the termination of a headache are both ________ reinforcers.primary
On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace’s surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.variable-interval
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.variable-interval
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.variable-ratio
Leon’s psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. Leon will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. This is because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to which schedule?fixed-interval
Nancy decided to take introductory psychology because she has always been interested in human behavior. Jack enrolled in the same course because he thought it would be easy. Nancy’s behavior was motivated by ________, Jack’s by ________.intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates:latent learning.
Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the operant conditioning of work habits.cognitive processes
Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to:overestimate the percentage of crimes that involve violent acts.
Regarding the impact of watching television violence on children, most researchers believe that:watching violence on television leads to aggressive behavior.
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of:continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
Reggie’s mother tells him that he can watch TV after he cleans his room. Evidently, Reggie’s mother is attempting to use ________ to increase room cleaning.all of the above
Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor’s house, at which time she’ll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ________ reinforcers.immediate
A fixedratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n):specified number of responses have been made.
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.variable-ratio
Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company’s fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Because service completion times are unpredictable, she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.variable-interval
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?receiving an approving nod from the boss for a job well done
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:shaping.
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n):conditioned response.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?sweating in hot weather
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits:justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.
You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to:retrieve sticks and balls.
A child’s fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):conditioned response.
In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a(n):US.
In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):unconditioned stimulus.
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor’s cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the UR.your crying
If you have frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:classical conditioning.
You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a(n):CR
The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction:the CR is suppressed.
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n):unconditioned response.
Conditioning is the process of:learning associations
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n):UR.
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor’s cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the CR.you fear today
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?receiving an approving nod from the boss for a job well done
The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of:latent learning
The “psychic secretions” that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were:conditioned responses.
In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the:UR.
Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the US need not immediately follow the CS.
Learning associations between one’s own behavior and resulting events is to ________ as learning associations between events one doesn’t control is to ________.operant conditioning; classical conditioning
Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of:shaping.