Chapter 5 Infancy and Toddlerhood

Piaget believed that infants and toddlers“think” with their eyes, ears, and hands
According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called ______ are organized ways of making sense of experienceschemes
During ____, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in _____, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completelyassimilation; accommodation
The circular reaction initially centers onthe infant’s own body
In Piaget’s theory, ____ are the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligencenewborn reflexes
Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to masterobject permanence
Awareness of object permanence is not yet complete in Piaget’s Substage 4 becausebabies still make the A-not-B search error
Researches using the violation-of-expectation method may use ____ by exposing babies to a physical event until their looking declineshabituation
In a series of studies using the violation-of-expectation method, Renee Baillargeon and her collaborates claimed to have found evidence forobject permanence in the first few months of life
Follow-up research on cognitive development indicates that ____ is present as early as 6 weeksdeferred imitation
Unlike Piaget, most researches now believe thatinfants have some built-in cognitive equipment for making sense of experience
According to the core knowledge perspective, each of an infant’s ____ permits a ready grasp of new, related informationcore domains of thought
Core knowledge theorists assume thatan inherited foundation of linguistic enables swift language acquisition in early childhood
Research suggests that infantshave basic numeric knowledge
Information-processing researchers focus onmany aspects of thinking, from attention, memory, and categorization skills to complex problem solving
In the information-processing system, information first entersthe sense reigster
In the ____, sights and sounds are represented directly and stored breiflysensory register
_____ can be thought of as a “mental workspace” that we use to accomplish many activities in daily lifeWorking memory
In the information-processing system, a special part of working memory, called the _____, directs the flow of inforamtionCentral Executive
____ and ____ provide windows into early memory by showing that retention of visual events increases dramatically over infancy and toddler hoodOperant conditioning; habituation
Vygotsky believed that complex mental activities have their origin insocial interaction
According to Vygotsky, children master activities througha joint activities with more mature of their society
According to Vygotsky, ____ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do within the help of more skilled partnersthe zone of proximal development
Compared with cognitive theories, mental testsfocus on the products of cognitive development rather than on the process of development
One goal of mental testing is toarrive at scores that predict future peroformance
An intelligence quotient (IQ)indicates that extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals
Intelligence test scores of infants and toddlers often do nor reflect their true abilities becausethey easily become distracted, fatigued, or bored during testing
Research using the HOME checklist reveals that the extent to which parents ____ is especially important in facilitating toddlers’ intelligence test performancetalk to their infants and toddlers
Research consistently shows that infants and young children exposed to ____ child care score lower and measures of ____ skillspoor-quality; social and cognitive
Good quality child carecan reduce the negative impact of a stressed, poverty-stricken home life
Early intervention programsserve economically at-risk children and their parents
Which of the following statements about language development is true?By age 6, most children speak in elaborate sentence and are skilled conversationalists
According to Noam Chomsky, all children have a ____ device that contains a universal grammerlanguage acquisition
For most people, language ishoused largely in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex
Social- interactionsts emphasize thatchildren’s social skills and language experience are centrally involved in language developement
Two-month-old Penny makes vowel-like noises. This is an example ofcooing
Baby Greer says “babababa”. This is an example ofbabbling
Babies everywhere start babbling at about the same age, but for babbling to develop further,babies must be able to hear human speech
The earlier toddlers ___, the sooner they produce two-word utterances at the end of second yearform word-gesture combinations
Sixteen-month-old Grayson calls all dogs “dog”, but only uses the word “puppy” to refer to his family’s dog. This is an example ofunderextension
Alice calls untying her shoelaces “opening” her shoes. This is an example ofoverextension
Which of the following statements about over extension is true?Children often overextend deliberately because they have difficulty recalling or have not acquired a suitable word
Miranda says “more apple”. This two-word utterance is an example oftelegraph speech
Which of the following parent-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?reading and talking about picture books
Infant-directed speech and parent-child conversationcreate a zone of proximal development in which children’s language expands