APUSH Chapter 18

Fire-eatersRefers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the confederate states of America.
Underground RailroadVirtual freedom train consisted of an informal chain of ‘stations’ through which scores of ‘passengers’ (runaway slaves) were spirited by ‘conductors’ (usually white and black abolitionists) from the slave states to the free-soil sanctuary of Canada
Harriet TubmanRescued more than 300 slaves including her aging parents and deservedly earned the title ‘moses’
Daniel WebsterFamous american politician and orator, he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve system. Would later push for a strong union.
William H. SewardA governor of New York, United States senator, and the United States secretary of state under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson.
Compromise of 1850California admitted as free state, territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, federal assumption of Texas debt, slave trade abolished in DC, and new fugitive slave laws; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
William WalkerA proslavery American adventurer from the south, he led an expedition to seize control of Nicaragua in 1855. He wanted to petition for annexation it as a new slave state but sent troops to oust him before the offer was made.
Treaty of WanghiaThe first diplomatic agreement between China and American, signed on July 3, 1844. Since America signed as a nation interested in trade instead of colonization, it was rewarded with extraordinary amount of trading power.
Stephen A. DouglasA moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
What were the advantages and disadvantages of popular sovereignty?Popular sovereignty makes states more stable, but they also reduce the risk of civil war in neighboring countries. Advantages of popular sovereignty included a better economy and better education. One of the disadvantages of popular sovereignty is that the majority is not always right.
Why was the Free-Soil party formed? Was it important? Explain.It was formed because the whigs and the democrats could not agree on the expansion of slavery in the west. It was formed to stop the expansion of slavery in the west, to protect slavery in new lands gained in the Mexico-American war.
Did the California Gold Rush make people rich? Explain.In the earliest days of the rush, claims yielding as much as $300 to $400 in a day were no uncommon.
“The South was in a politically weak position in the 1850’s.” Assess this statement.The 1850’s started the rise of the republican party.
What effect did Webster’s speech have?Daniel Webster’s Bunker Hill speech embodied the beliefs of the time and restored American desire to fight for what was right.
How did William Seward contribute to the tension between North and South in 1850?William Seward finally took it upon himself to organize a rally against the Nebraska bill, since none had arisen spontaneously. The radical press, such as the national era and the New York tribune, and the local free-soil journals, condemned the bill.
What factors led to the acceptance of the Compromise of 1850?A movement in the South to boycott Northern goods gained some headway, but in the end the Southern unionists, asserted by the warm glow of prosperity prevailed. The delegates not only took a strong position in favor slavery but condemned the compromise measures then being hammered out in congress. Meeting again in November after the bills had passed. The convention proved to be dud. But that time southern opinion had reluctantly accepted the verdict of congress.
Explain the quote, “No single irritant of the 1850’s was more consistently galling to both sides…”It means that there was nothing more irritating at a consistent rate to both sides.
What was more important about the election of 1852?It marked the effective end of the disorganized whig party an within a few years, it’s complete death. They finally choked to death trying to swallow the distasteful fugitive slave law. The contribution upheld the ideal of the Union through their electoral strength in the south through leaders like Clay and Webster.
Explain the Ostend Manifesto, and what consequences it had.The Ostend Manifesto (1854) strongly suggested that the United States should take Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell.
Is China or Japan more important to American trade today?The trade from China is more important to America today as they provide 50% of most things.
What was the reason for the Gadsen Purchase?The purpose of the purchase was to allow for the construction of a southern route for a transcontinental railroad. Another rationale for the purchase was to give Mexico more money in compensation for the small amount paid for the lands taken by the U.S. 5 years earlier in 1848.
Why were northerners so opposed to popular sovereignty?The law violated northerner’s notions of states’ rights, it infringed on civil liberties in the north.
What were the effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?Wrecked two compromises: that of 1820, which it repealed specifically, and that of 1850, which northern opinion repealed indirectly. The most durable offspring was the Republican party.