AP Human Geography Chapter 1 Vocab, Diffusion, Toponyms, Examples(Still to be added), and Question(Still to be added)

Relocation Diffusion exampleThe migration of Christianity with European settlers who came to America
Contagious Diffusion exampleHinduism started in Northern India and spread through the entire Indian subcontinent absorbing other beliefs and practices as it spread. Hindu Missionaries carried the faith oversees
Contagious Diffusion exampleBuddhism started in the Ganges Plain as an offshoot of Hinduism but dispersed further throughout the Indian subcontinent and Asia too
Relocation Diffusion exampleDuring colonial era, hundreds of thousands of Indians were transported to other contries including Africa, Carribean and South America, spreading Hinduism far beyond it’s orginial core
Hierarchical Diffusion examplewhen missionaries attempted to convert kings or tribal leaders in the hopes their people would follow
Contagious Diffusion exampleMonks were important in the spread of Christianity around Europe
Descriptivedescribe appearance of a place; Example: Yellow River, China
Associativeassociating name w/ something in that place; Example: Balkan Mine, Michigan
Commemorativein honor of; Example: San Francisco, California
San Jose, Puerto Rico St. Augustine, Florida
Commendatorypraise of place( saying something nice); Example: Paradisa Valley, Arizona
Golden Hill Park (Indianapolis, IN)
Incidentsevents that happened there; Example: Magenta, Italy (after the battle known as the Battle of Magenta)
Fort Ben Harrison State Park (Indianapolis, IN)
Possessionnamed after person(not big in history); Example: Johnson City, Texas
Nashville, TN
Manufacturedmade up names; Example: Boring, Oregon
Mistakesnames that are messed up, misunderstandings; Example: West Indies (not west of the Indies and not the Indies)
Shift Namesrelocated names; Example: Athens (Greece and Texas), Palestine (Middle East and Texas), New Mexico (settlers from Mexico named their new home after their previous home),New England
Double Namesplace has 2 names that mean the same thing; Example: Mountain Maungauni (Maunga is Mountain in Maori)
Agricultural DensityThe ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Arithmetic DensityThe total number of people divided by the total land area
Base lineAn east-west line designed under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
CartographyThe science of making maps
ConcentrationThe spread of something over a given area
ConnectionsRelationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Contagious diffusionThe rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural EcologyGeographic approach that emphasizes human environment relationship
Cultural LandscapeFashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
CultureThe body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
DensityThe frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
DiffusionThe process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decayThe diminishing of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
DistributionThe arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Environmental DeterminismA nineteenth and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical science. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Expansion DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Formal Region (or uniform or homogenous region)An area which everything shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
Functional Region (or nodal region)An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic Information System (GIS)A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic date
Global Positioning System (GPS)A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations and receivers
GlobalizationAction of processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)The time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 degree longitude
HearthThe region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or place
International Date LineAn arc that for the most part follow 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east (towards America), the clock moves back 24 hours or one entire day. When you go west (towards Asia), the calender moves ahead one day.
Land Ordinance of 1785A law that divided much of the United States into townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
LatitudeThe numbering systems used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
LocationThe position of anything on Earth’s surface.
LongitudeThe numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
MapA two-dimensional, or flat representation of Earth’s surface or portion of it
Mental MapA representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
MeridianAn arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
ParallelA circle drawn around the globe that is in line with the equator and at right angles is in line with the meridians
PatternThe geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Physiological DensityThe number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
PlaceA specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
PolderLand created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
PossibilismThe theory that physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Prime MeridianThe meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Principal MeridianA north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
ProjectionThe system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map
RegionAn area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional (or cultural landscape) StudiesAn approach to geography the emphasizes the relationships among among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Relocation DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote SensingThe acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planets or from other long-distance methods
ResourceA substance in the environment that is useful to people is economically and technologically feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use
ScaleGenerally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole; specifically, the relationship between the size of the an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s Surface
SectionA square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections
SiteThe physical character of a place
SituationThe location of a place relative to another place
SpaceThe physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-Time CompressionThe reduction in the time it takes yo diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stimulus DiffusionThe spreads of an underlying principle even through a specific characteristic is rejected
ToponymThe name given to a portions of Earth’s surface
TownshipA square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into these
Transnational CorporationA company that conducts research, operation factories, and sells products in many countries not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Uneven DevelopmentThe increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of golbalization of the economy
Vernacular Region(or perceptual region)An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Human GeographyIs the study of where and why human activities are located where they are – for example, regions, businesses, and cities.
Physical GeographyStudies where and why natural forces occur as they do – for example, climate, landforms, and types of vegetation