Art Appreciation

Two-dimensional arthas height and width, but not depth
Elementsthe basic vocabulary of art
Principlesthe “grammar” that artists apply to turn the elements into art
Linea mark, or implied mark, between two endpoints
Nazca Linesline drawings seen from the sky
Regular (inorganic) Lineslines that express control and planning
Irregular (organic) Lineslines that are unrestrained and express passion
Andre Massonartist who would go without food or sleep to force himself to explore deeper sources of creativity
Actual Linea continuous uninterrupted line
Implied linea line not actually drawn but suggested by elements in the work
Directional LIneline used to direct our attention to something the artist wants us to notice
Vertical Linessuggest strength and energy
Horizontal Linescommunicate calmness and passivity
Diagonal Linesexpress action, motion, and change
Contour Lineslines that suggest a volume in space
Geometric Shapesshapes composed of regular lines and curves
Organic Shapesshapes composed of unpredictable, irregular lines
Contrastthe principle of using two noticeably different states of an element
Positive shapesa shape defined by its surrounding empty space
Negative Shapean empty space given shape by its surround
Figure-ground Reversalreversal of relationship between one shape and its background, so that the figure becomes the background and the ground becomes the figure
Concentricidentical shapes sharing the same center
Three-dimensionalart that has height, width, and depth
Form, Volume, Mass, and Texturethe four elements of 3-dimensional art
Forman object that can be defined in three dimensions
Volumethe amount of space a form occupies
Massa volume that has weight and density
Texturethe surface quality of a work
Geometric Formare regular and expressible in words or numbers, e.g., cubes, spheres, cones, pyramids
Organic Formirregular and unpredictable forms
Abstractart imagery that departs from recognizable images from the natural world
Reliefa raised form on a flat background
In the Rounda freestanding form or sculpted work that can be viewed from all sides
Open volumea space enclosed with materials that are not completely solid
Negative Spaceempty space given shape by its surround (in 3-D forms)
Subversive Texturetextures used in works that contradict our previous tactile experience
Surrealistsartists who created work that drew on ideas and images from dreams and the unconscious mind
“Object” (Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon)this work by Meret Oppenheim used texture to contradict the conscious logical experiences
Guggenheim Musemmuseum in Bilbao, Spain, that is designed with largely organic, irregular forms
Frank GehryAmerican architect that designed the Guggenheim Musem
Bas-reliefa sculpture carved with very little depth
High Reliefcarved panel where the figures project with great depth from the background
Touchbecause a form exists in “real” space, we can experience it visually and through the sense of:
Stelaupright stone slab decorated with inscriptions or pictorial relief carvings
Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, cast shadowthe five defined values of the chiaroscuro method
CloserColor can imply depth; when a color is very pure and intense then it seems to be …. (distance)
behind Christ’s headvanishing point in the Last Supper
cone of visionarea that is visible when a viewer is staring at a fixed point in space
Atmospheric perspectivewhen objects are far away they lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because of the interference of air; what process is the application of this
Foreshorteninga perspective technique that depicts a form at a very oblique angle to the viewer in order to show depth in space
Linear perspectivesystem using converging imaginary sight lines to create the illusion of depth
Isometric perspectivesystem using diagonal parallel lines to communicate depth
Valuethe lightness or darkness of a surface is the element of art called
Isometric perspectiveperspective common in computer graphics
Hatchingthe use of non-overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
Cross-hatchingthe use of overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
Chiaroscurothe method of applying value to a 2-D artward in order to create the illusion of 3-D solid form
Masacciowho composed the fresco the Trinity using string to map out the composition
One-point perspectivetype of perspective that has a single vanishing point
Vanishing pointpoint where imaginary sight lines appear to converge, suggesting depth
Three-point perspectiveperspective system with two vanishing points on the horizon and one not on the horizon
Rythmnartists intersperse value and visual texture to create a sense of…
Closershapes that are larger in size, that overlap other shapes, or are placed lower in the picture plane appear to be…
Value, space, perspectivethree techniques used to imply depth