American History CH. 8-9

James Madison emerged from Princeton College in 1771an exceptional scholar with no real plan for his life
Under the Articles of Confederation, the confederation government lackedan executive and judicial branch as well as the power to levy taxes
Under the Articles of Confederation,each state had a single vote in Congress
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved in 1781 when all the states agreed to surrender theirclaims to western lands
Most of the new states spelled out their citizens’ rights and liberties in written contracts becausethe unwritten nature of British political traditions led to Americans being denied liberties they had assumed they possessed
Between 1776 and 1780, the states attracted the most talented statesmen becausethe states were sovereign and familiar
A shared feature of all the state constitutions drawn up during the American Revolution wasthe conviction that government rests on the consent of the governed
In devising their new constitutions, most statesreduced the powers of the governor
Virginia’s constitution was the first toinclude a bill of rights
Property qualifications for voters and candidates in the new statesdisfranchised 25 to 50% of all adult white males
Writers of the new sates constitutions believed that voting requirements shouldreflect colonial property qualifications to prevent women and very poor people from demanding the vote
Which state allowed free blacks and women to vote in the early years of the republic?New Jersey
Some states were reluctant to include “equality language” in their bill of rights and constitutions becausethey were afraid the words could be construed to apply to slaves
In the quarter century after 1775, legislatures provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery inmost northern states
In the deep South, immediately after the Revolutionthe largest emancipation of blacks in the country occurred because of their association with the British
Factors leading to the postwar depression that began in the mid-1780s includedhuge state and federal war debts, private debt, and rapid expenditure
Robert Morris proposed to increase the revenue of the conf. gov. bypassing a 5% import tax
While Morris’s tax proposal did not take effect and the Bank of N. America did not resuscitate the economy in the 1780s, the confederation still had the potential to obtain wealth throughsale of huge territory ceded by VA which in 1784 became the national domain
In the land ordinances of 1784-85, Congressset out a rectangular grid system for surveying land and est. township perimeters
Under the Ordinance of 1785’s guidelines for land sales in the Northwest Territory, land would be soldby public auction @a min purchase price of a $ per acre and in min. parcels of 640 acres ea.
The most serious obstacle to settlement in the Northwest Territory wasclashes with the Indian tribes that occupied the land
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory
Shay’s Rebellion of 1786 was the result ofincreased taxes on farmers in MA
MA responded to Shay’s Rebellion with adispatch of armed militiamen
The major legacy of Shay’s Rebellion wasthe realization that the AoC were inadequate and thus a reworking of national gov. was needed
Opposition to the Constitution came from substantial majorities in which of the following three most populous states?Virginia, Massachusetts, and New York
Pro-Constitution forces called themselvesFederalists
The first state to ratify the Constitution wasDelaware
Antifederalists were united mainly bytheir desire to block the Constitution
The core of Antifederalists’ opposition to the Constitution centered onfear the distant power might infringe on people’s liberties
The fight over ratification in Virginia proved to be very close because the influence of George Washington and James Madison was countered by Antifederalist arguments fromGeorge Mason and Henry
Antifederalism in NY centered onthe state’s size and power in relation to the new federal government
The authors of The Federalist essays originally wrote themas newspaper articles that detailed the failures of the AoC
In essay number 10 of The Federalist, James Madison maintained that the constitutional government wouldprevent any one faction from subverting the freedom of other groups
During the 1790s, a rift developed between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson partly becauseHamilton supported the commercial elite and admired the British
Washington was elected president unanimously and gained the admiration of many Americans primarily becausehe seemed to personify the eighteenth-century ideal of the disinterested republican political leader
Washington chose which of the following men to be his secretary of the treasury?Hamilton
As vice president, John Adams was not invited to cabinet meetings; his only official duty was topreside over the Senate
In response to promises that had been made in order to obtain ratification of the Constitution, James Madison drew up thefirst ten amendments to the Constitution, commonly called the Bill of Rights
Which of the following was significantly omitted from the Bill of Rights?the right to vote
According to republican ideals of the late eighteenth century, women and mothers were most important inteaching virtuous sons
In the new republic, traditional gender relationsremained largely unaltered from the norm
Before the federal government settled into its permanent home in Washington, D.C., the nation’s capital had most recently been moved fromNY->Philly
American cotton production underwent a real boom in the late 1790s because ofmarket conditions and the invention of the cotton gin
During the 1790s, improvements in overland transportationled to an increase in the number of commercial stagecoach companies
Alexander Hamilton publicly claimed that rolling the old certificates of debt into new government bonds wouldinfuse money into the economy and inspire citizens’ confidence in the government
To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Hamilton proposedthat the federal government assume the unpaid war debts of the states
Critics opposed the federal government assuming the states’ old Revolutionary War debt becausesuch action could subordinate the states to federal power
Which of Hamilton’s economic programs did Thomas Jefferson advise Washington was not permitted under the Constitution?the chartering of banks by Congress
In response to Hamilton’s arguments that the Constitution granted broad rights to regulate commerce, which would allow for the establishment of the Bank of the United States,President Washington agreed with Hamilton’s interpretation of the Constitution and signed the bank into law in 1791
The main purpose of the moderate tariff that Hamilton proposed in his Report on Manufactures was toprotect and foster domestic manufacturing
Of the economic programs presented by Hamilton, the only one not approved by Congress was thetariff recommended in the Report on Manufactures
The Whiskey Rebellionwas a protest by grain farmers against the excise tax on whiskey
To meet the interest payments on the national debt under his consolidation plan, Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass25% excise tax on whiskey
In response to the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, President Washingtonnationalized the PA militia and led the effort to put down the revolt
Alexander Hamilton viewed the Whiskey Rebellion as a(n)serious threat to federal leadership within the country
Which describes the U.S. government’s early policy toward Indians in the Northwest Territory?Displace the Indians and clear the way for permanent American settlements in Ohio
When the U.S. government’s early policy toward the Indians in the Northwest Territory did not reap the anticipated results,an expansion of military forces led to the total defeat of General St. Clair’s army
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne’s defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers resulted inTreaty of Greenville
What good’s offered to the Indians under the Treaty of Greenville was the most detrimental to the tribes?liquor
What was President Washington’s first reaction to the war between England and France that began in 1793?He issued a Neutrality Proclamation
What best describes American sentiment regarding the English-French struggle in 1793?Many Americans were angered by an official declaration of neutrality
How did the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 affect white Americans?They became fearful that the rebellion might spread to American shores
The first signs of distinct rival U.S. political groups appearedduring Washington’s 2nd term
The constitution did not include or anticipatepolitical parties
President Washington spoke for a “unified body politic” and againstAmerica forming permanent alliances with foreign countries
In the 1796 presidential election, Adams and Jeffersonended up being P and VP
In the election of 1796, a procedural flaw resulted in the election of political rivals as president and vice president; this flaw wascorrected by passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804
During President Adams’s one term in office, Vice President Jeffersonwithdrew from active counsel of the president due to the influence of the Hamiltonian cabinet
In the fall of 1797, in order to avert a war with France, President Adamssent 3 men to negotiate peace with France
X, Y, and Z were the code names for3 unnamed French agents sent by Talleyrand to meet with American commissioners
Following the XYZ affair,Congress repealed all prior treaties with France and launched the United States into an undeclared war with France called the Quasi-War
In an effort to muffle the heated opposition to President Adams’s anti-French foreign policyCongress passed the Sedition Act of 1798
The basic intent of the two Alien Acts passed by Congress was toharass French immigrants already in the United States and discourage others from coming
The Sedition Act targeted mainlyRepublican newspaper editors who freely published criticism of the Adams administration
Republicans used the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions tooppose the Alien and Sedition Acts using state legislatures
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions put forth the novel idea thatstates have the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws and can nullify laws that infringe on liberties as defined in the Bill of Rights
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were authored byJefferson and Madison
When President Adams arranged a negotiated end to the Quasi-War in 1799,he host a significant part of his party’s support