A&P ch5

Accumulations of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis are called _______.blisters
Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of ________ perspiration.insensible
Water loss from insensible perspiration?is approximately 0.5 liters a day.
The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the?epidermis
________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.Dendritic cells
Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except?Answer- synthesis of vitamin c
-functions include
*maintenance of body temperature
*protection of underlying issues
*excretion of salts and wastes
*provision of sensation
The two components of the integumentary system are the?cutaneous membrane and accessory structures
The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are?keratinocytes
The tough “horny” superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the?stratum corneum
Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the?stratum corneum
Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration.insensible
The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the?stratum spinosum
Characteristics of the epidermis include:Answer- all the above
*flexible
*contains desmosomes
*serves as UV radiation protection
*multilayered
All of the following are true of epidermal ridges, except that they?Answer-contain increased numbers of free nerve endings.
What is true-
*interconnect with the dermal papillae
*cause ridge patterns on the surface skin
*produce patterns that are genetically determined
*extend to the dermis
The epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue?keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the?stratum germinativum
The protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface is?keratin
Thin skin contains ________ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ________ layers.4; 5
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?5
The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are?carotene and melanin
An albino individual lacks the ability to produce?melanin
All of the following are true of the pigment melanin, except that it?Answer-decreases in concentration within cells during exposure to the sun
What is true-
*protects DNA front the damaging effects of UV radiation
*is produced by cells called melanocytes
*is usually some shade of brown or black
*is produced from the amino acid tryosine
Cyanosis signifies that a patient?has oxygen-starved skin
Jaundice is indicated by?a yellowish skin coloration
Exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of?melanin.
The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.melanin
The pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called ________.carotene
Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum ________.basale
The skin appearance that results from dark-red hemoglobin is called ________.cyanosis
Four signs useful for determining if a suspicious mark on the skin is melanoma follow the ABCD mnemonic. Identify what each letter abbreviatesA-asymmetry
B-border
C-color
D-diameter
Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?vitiligo
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is?Vitamin D
Types of skin cancers include?squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma
Which of the following statements about rickets is not true?Answer-is usually genetic
What is true-
*prevented by sunlight
*leads to skeletal deformity
*prevented by vitamin D
*leads to weak bones
Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure on the skin. To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet?cholecalciferol
A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the structure of the skeletal system is ________.Rickets
The most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed ________.malignant melanoma
Vitamin D3 is important for proper ________ development.bone
Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinativum is called ________.basal cell carcinoma
Epidermal growth factor exerts which of these effects on the epidermis?A) promotes cell division
B) stimulates keratin synthesis
C) accelerates tissue repair
D) speeds up glandular function
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.papillary
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.reticular
The protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is?elastin
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the?reticular layer
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the?papillary layer
Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed?dermatitis.
A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage?closes and heals with relatively little scarring
While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of?dehydration
Stretch marks occur when?The skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic capabilities are exceeded
An intradermal injection is administered into which layer?dermis
Which tissue is located in the region labeled “2”?areolar connective tissue
A bruise turns “black and blue” because of ________ in the dermis.broken blood vessels
The drug ________ increases dermal blood flow and makes the skin red.tretinoin
Which of the following is NOT part of the cutaneous membrane?hypodermis
What structures do you find within the hypodermis?fat and the cutaneous plexus
The papillary layer is more superficial than the reticular layer of dermis. True or false?TRUE
All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer, except it?is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane.
Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except?epidermis
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the?cuticle
Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by?Melanocytes at the hair papilla
Lanugo is found?on a fetus
If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed,the hair matrix will lose its blood supply
Which statement about hairs is false?Answer- club hairs are ingrown hairs
what is true:
*Terminal hairs are in the axilla
*A terminal hair can detach but remain in the hair follicle as a club hair
*Eyebrows are terminal hairs
*Vellus hairs are on the limbs of children until puberty
When the arrector pili muscles contract,“goose bumps” are formed.
Each of the following statements concerning hair is true, except one. Identify the exception.ANSWER:Scalp hairs grow constantly throughout life.
WHAT IS TRUE:
*Terminal hairs are heavy and more darkly pigmented than other types of hair.
*The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin.
*Club hair is hair that has ceased growing
*The medulla is the soft core of the hair.
Fine hairs (like “velvet”) that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called ________.vellus hairs
Coarse pigmented hairs are called ________.terminal hairs
A common cause of dandruff is?inflammation around sebaceous glands.
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.sebaceous
The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.apocrine sweat
Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.merocrine sweat
Earwax is produced by ________ glands.ceruminous
Merocrine sweat contains ________ to protect against bacteria.dermicidin
The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found where?on the palms of the hands
Each of the following statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum is true, except one. Identify the exception.ANSER: Most sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands.
TRUE:
*Sebum can function as an antibiotic.
*Most sebaceous glands open into hair follicles.
*Acne involves inflammation of sebaceous glands.
*Sebum functions to lubricate the hair and skin.
________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas.Merocrine; sebaceous; apocrine
Which of the following happens if body temperature rises above normal?Blood flow to the skin increases
Merocrine sweat glands?secreting their stuff directly on the skin
All of the following are true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands, except that it?produces the body odor characteristic of “sweating.”
The substance called sebum is commonly known as ________.skin oil
The nail body covers the?nail bed
Nail production occurs at the nail?root
The cuticle around a nail is the?eponychium.
The stratum corneum just under the free-edge of a nail is the?hyponychium.
A child who skins his knee in a fall has a(n)?abrasion
In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.fibroblasts
The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a?Third degree burn
If a fair-skinned person is sunburned, why does his or her skin turn red?The blood flow to the skin increases
Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because?Stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective tissue components of eh skin after injury
The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury.
1. blood clot/scab formation
2. cellular migration
3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
4. epidermis covers scar tissue
The correct order for these events is:
1.blood clot/scab
2.cellular migration
3.epidermis covers granulation tissue
4.epidermis covers scar tissue
Scar tissue is the result of?large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area.
During repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce ________ tissue.granulation
Treatment of full-thickness burns includes which of the following?assist tissue repair, increase caloris intake, prevent infection, replace fluids
Charlie is badly burned in an accident. When he reaches the emergency room, the examining physician finds that he can remove entire hair follicles from Charlie’s arm when he gently pulls on a hair with his forceps. Charlie is suffering from a(n)third degree burn
A full-thickness burn injury can be life threatening. A physician treating a burn victim would likely order all of the following?a high-calorie diet, IV (intravenous) fluids and electrolytes, skin grafts, antibiotics.
In the condition known as erythema, the skin takes on a(n) ________ color.reddish
A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called a?keloid
A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called a?scab
The combination of fibrin clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed in injured skin is called ________.granulation tissue
If epithelial cell migration cannot cover a wound, ________ may be required.Skin grafts
A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called ________.sepsis
The effects of aging on the skin include?a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands.
Wrinkles in elderly individuals are the result of?loss of elastic filaments in the reticular layer of the dermis.
Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person?There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the elderly; Skin repairs take longer in the elderly; Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly;The epidermis is thinner in the elderly.
Explain why the rate of dehydration is greater when a person is immersed in seawater than when in fresh water. (essay)because ocean water reverses the direction of osmotic flow. Due the fact that ocean water is hypertonic solution. Water actually leaves the body, crossing the epidermis fro the underlying tissues.