Abnormal Psychology: Chapters 11 and 12

Chapter 11Chapter 11
The disorder that is characterized by eating binges followed by forced vomiting is called:bulimia nervosa
Characteristics of anorexia nervosa include all the following EXCEPT:a view that one is currently unattractively thin
Recent research on body dissatisfaction among college students suggests which of the following?Men who are overweight and underweight are more dissatisfied than those who are of medium weight
A person who stopped eating candy and other sweets, then gradually eliminated other foods until he or she was eating almost nothing could be experiencing:restricted-type anorexia nervosa
A person who loses weight by forcing herself to vomit after meals or by using laxatives, and who otherwise fits the definition of anorexia is experiencing:binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa
Which of the following statements BEST reflects the relationship between gender and eating disorders?Most cases of eating disorders occur in females
What is the MOST common outcome for individuals with anorexia nervosa?recovery
If a person says, “I must be perfect in every way. I’ll be a better person if I deprive myself of food,” that person is engaging in:distorted thinking
The preoccupation with food characteristic of anorexia nervosa is thought to:result from starvation
A modern explanation of why many anorexic people continually have food-related thoughts and dreams is that:such thoughts and dreams are the result of food deprivation
People suffering from anorexia nervosa tend to:overestimate their body size
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to characterize the behavior of someone experiencing anorexia nervosa?a hesitancy to think and talk about food
If you were looking at a photograph of yourself and adjusting the size until you thought the picture looked like you, you would MOST likely be participating in an assessment of your:accuracy in estimating body size
Of the following, the psychological disorder that anorexia nervosa MOST resembles is:obsessive-compulsive disorder
If a friend were experiencing anorexia nervosa, you wouldn’t be surprised to find that the friend was also experiencing all of the following EXCEPT:a personality disorder
The popular star whose death raised awareness of eating disorders was:Karen Carpenter
Consequences of anorexia nervosa include all of the following EXCEPT:fever and high blood pressure
Which of the following problems is a possible medical complication of anorexia nervosa?decreased heart rate
Misusing diuretics and laxatives following a binge is a symptom of the ___________ of bulimia nervosa.purging-type
Bulimia is always characterized by:uncontrollable overeating
The central feature of bulimia nervosa is:binge eating followed by a compensatory behavior
A woman eats cookies, cake, ice cream, and almost anything else that is sweet. At some point during the binge, she takes a huge dose of a laxative to “empty out” the food. Her taking the laxative, and the assumption underlying why she does it, would lead to a diagnosis of:purging-type bulimia nervosa
A woman eats chips and dips, burgers and fries, and drinks a couple of shakes. Afterward, she goes to the gym and does 90 minutes of aerobics, spends an hour on the stairstepper, and then does weights for another hour. She also does not eat for 72 hours. The set of assumptions underlying her behavior would lead to a diagnosis of:nonpurging-type bulimia nervosa
To qualify for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa, what must be TRUE of the compensatory behaviors displayed?They must occur
Which of the following statements is true?People with bulimia nervosa run the risk of becoming both anorexic and obese
Many teenagers go on occasional eating binges. Which of the following is TRUE about this behavior?Most people who engage in the behavior are not bulimic
What appears to be the KEY factor in determining the types of food that are likely to be eaten in a binge?rapidity through soft texture
For people with bulimia nervosa, binge episodes produce feelings of:guilt and depression
Vomiting as a compensatory behavior for those experiencing bulimia:ironically, leads to greater hunger and more frequent binges
Following a very-low-calorie weight-loss program, participants would be at MOST risk for:bingeing
Similarities between bulimia and anorexia include:both tend to begin after a period of dieting among people afraid of becoming obese
A young woman who is very concerned about being attractive to others, is more sexually experienced, and has relatively few obsessive qualities is:more likely to be experiencing bulimia than anorexia
The medical problem that is twice as frequent in anorexic women as it is in bulimic women is:amenorrhea
“Biggest Loser” contestants, if they are like the majority of obese people, are MOST likely:to not display binge eating disorder
How does binge eating disorder differ from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervose?There is less gender differences in the incidence rates
If a therapist thought that eating disorders were BEST explained by an interaction of sociocultural, psychological, and biological factors, that therapist would be taking a(an):cognitive-behavioral perspective
What underlies Hilde Bruch’s ego deficiency view of children with eating disorders is a sense of:lack of control over their lives and a misperception of internal cues
Parents who feed their children when they are anxious and comfort them when they are tired rather than giving them a nap, run the risk of producing children who:can’t assess their own needs
Compared to a person who is happy and self-confident, a person who is bored and depressed:is more likely to eat junk food
“I have this vague sense that something isn’t right, but I just can’t describe it,” is a statement MOST likely said by someone experiencing:alexithymia
In general, which of the following statements about feelings that trigger eating is TRUE?Positive emotions are less likely than negative emotions to trigger the eating of junk food
If we find that many people with eating disorders also have symptoms of depression, we know that:eating disorders and depression are somehow related
The levels of _______ are low in many people with depression and those with eating disorders.serotonin
“Depression and eating disorders are correlated.” What does this statement mean?People with eating disorders also tend to be depressed
In which of the following cases are you MOST likely to develop an eating disorder?if you have an identical twin with anorexia nervosa
The part of the brain MOST closely associated with the control of eating and body weight is the:hypothalamus
If you are overweight, the development of which of the following is MOST likely to appeal to you?a way to safely increase GLP-1 in humans
Which of the following is NOT true about obesity?It is a mental disorder
Based on current research, all of the following individuals have a higher risk of dying early EXCEPT:normal-weight people
In order to change the high rates of obesity among U.S. children and adolescents, which of the following should be addressed?rates of exercise and dietary habits
Which of the following is the MOST accurate biological explanation for people who gain weight after losing it?the brain is trying to restore the person to a set weight point
The “weight set point” is:the body’s natural weight
Based on past results, one would predict that women who win the Miss America Pageant in the future will:be smaller than those who lose
Which professions put one MOST at risk for an eating disorder?actors and certain athletes
If you are an overweight female teenager with an eating disorder, you are MORE likely than your peers to do all of the following EXCEPT spend more time:playing video games
Research on doll choice in preschoolers shows that:children choose the thin doll rather than the chubby doll but don’t know why
A recent study showed a positive correlation between the time spent on Facebook and the likelihood of experiencing an eating disorder among adolescent girls. This result showed that:exposure to media might be related to an increase in eating disorders
Salvador Minuchin describes a family system in which members are overly involved in each other’s affairs as a(n):enmeshed family pattern
Which of the following conclusions about family patterns and eating disorders is MOST supported by systematic research?Families of those with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa vary widely
If current trends concerning the body images of African American women and white American women continue, we would expect in the future that:African American women would show increasing body image dissatisfaction
That eating disorders are rising among nonwhite Americans to levels approaching the rates for white Americans is MOST likely due to:acculturation
What is the MOST likely explanation for the different explanations of eating disorders in men and women?Male eating disorders are more likely to be tied to work or sports
Of the following, the MOST appropriate diagnosis for a man who is strong and fit but does not see himself that way is:muscle dysmorphobia
The first step in treating anorexia nervosa is to:help the person start to regain the lost weight
A person who was receiving the best and most current treatment for an eating disorder would receive treatment designed to:deal first with changing the eating habits, then with what caused them
Anorectic patients receive a gradually increasing diet over the course of several weeks, encouragement, education, and reassurance that they will not become obese. The form of therapy they are receiving is:supportive nursing care
Lasting improvement for one with anorexia nervosa depends on:addressing underlying psychological problems
An example of a disturbed cognition that might be present in one being treated for anorexia is the statement:“My weight and shape determine my value.”
Research on the aftermath of anorexia shows that:the death rate from anorexia appears to be declining
What is a likely long-term consequence of anorexiacontinuing concern about weight and appearance
All the treatment methods for bulimia nervosa share the immediate goal of:assisting patients to eliminate their binge-purge patterns
Tanya is a behavioral therapist who exposes bulimia patients to situations that usually cause binge episodes and then prevents them from binge eating. The technique that she is using is called:exposure and response prevention
One of the therapy methods commonly used to treat bulimia nervosa is:exposure and response therapy
Relapse for both bulimia and anorexia is MOST likely triggered by:life stresses
A factor increasing the likelihood of a relapse of bulimia is:development of a pattern of frequent vomiting
Chapter 12Chapter 12
The perceptual distortions some drugs produce are called:hallucinosis
A college professor’s work performance recently has deteriorated, and his colleagues find him difficult to talk to. If this is due to a problem with drugs, the best description of this professor’s behavior as detailed above would be:substance abuse
This long-term pattern of maladaptive behavior caused by the regular use of some chemical or drug is called:substance abuse
Intoxication is actually a form of:poisoning
A person who experiences vomiting and shaking when he tries to stop drinking alcohol has developed:withdrawal reactions
A newly developed drug causes users to lose some muscle control and slur their words. The drug also results in a slowing of central nervous system activity. MOST likely this drug is a:depressant
If all you know about someone is that the person has been binge drinking in the past month, then you know the person had at least:five drinks at a time at least once, and probably is a male
Women tolerate alcohol LESS than men because:they have less of a stomach enzyme that breaks down alcohol
In women, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase is found at:lower levels in the stomach, making them more susceptible to getting drunk
A person has ingested enough ethyl alcohol to lose consciousness, but not enough to produce death. The MOST probably alcohol concentration in that person, expressed as a percent of blood volume, is:.40.
Pat and Jody each have five screwdrivers (OJ and vodka). Pat gets very drunk. Jody does not. Which of the following is MOST likely to be true?Pat is a woman. Jody is a man.
Two people of the same gender and weight consume the same amount of alcohol in the same amount of time. Nevertheless, one of them sobers up substantially sooner than the other. MOST likely, this difference is due to:liver function: some people’s livers metabolize alcohol faster than those of others
One study shows that, in “substance-free” dorms, the percent of students who are binge drinkers is:about one-half the percent of students, nationwide, who are binge drinkers
Considering alcoholism in white American men, African American men, and Hispanic American men, which of the following is MOST accurate?The patterns of drinking differ across ethnic group and age
An individual who is dependent on alcohol is experiencing delirium tremens. This reaction is:uncommon, starting within three days after an individual stops drinking
In what proportion of suicides and rapes in the United States does alcoholism play a role?one-third
A patient in an alcohol rehabilitation center tells you a detailed story about growing up in the mountains of Tennessee. Later, you find out that the person in fact never even visited Tennessee. A day later you visit the patient again, and the patient does not recognize you. Most likely, the patient is suffering from:Korsakoff’s syndrome
Kelly is a long-time serious drinker. In the last year she has started having huge memory lapses. When this happens she makes up wild stories to help her fill in what she does not remember. This symptom is called:confabulation
A pattern of abnormalities, head and facial deformities, heart defects, and intellectual development disorder characterizes someone with:fetal alcohol syndrome
Barbiturates were first prescribed to help people:sleep
Because of the likelihood of convulsions, withdrawal from ____________ is especially dangerous.barbiturates
A wounded veteran of the U.S. Civil War suffering from “soldiers’ disease” MOST likely was suffering from:morphine dependence
Of the following, which has the LOWEST risks for drug dependency and long-term behavioral change?cannabis
Unlike the opioid drugs morphine and heroin, methadone:is synthetic
All the opioid drugs are known collectively as:narcotics
The drug that produces effects similar to what neurotransmitters called endorphins produce is:heroin
During his first night in the detoxification unit, Quent developed what seemed like a case of the flu. He ached all over and had diarrhea. He was probably withdrawing from:heroin
A heroin overdose is likely to occur when:one has been without heroin for a period of time and then takes one’s usual dose
A person would be LEAST likely to feel drowsy soon after taking a moderate dose of which type of drug?amphetamines
A person who recently injected cocaine reports reaching the peak of euphoria. Usually, that euphoria:occurs at about the same time as the peak of dopamine-using neuron activity
Mario felt awake and alive as though he could conquer the world. He MOST likely used:cocaine
The proportion of Americans over the age of 11 who smoke is about:1/3
Methods of supplying nicotine to those who are trying to quit smoking include all of the following except:the subcutaneous nicotine pump
Free-basing has the effect of making cocaine:more concentrated
If you were trying to convince a friend not to be a cocaine user, what would you cite as the GREATEST damage stemming from cocaine use?overdose effects
Lola’s physician prescribed diet pills. Which of the following drugs are they MOST likely to have contained?amphetamines
The “club drug,” which damages nerve endings and is associated with high rates of HIV-positive tests but which is NOT considered hallucinogenic, is:methamphetamine
A person took a drug and hour or two ago. Now the person sits alone, quietly and intensely listening to the sap running in a tree whose leaves appear a brilliant purple to the drug user. MOST likely, the person has recently used:LSD
A person takes a drug at noon. Although remaining awake and alert, the person experiences poor coordination, palpitations, and greatly enhanced visual perceptions. By dinner, the symptoms have pretty well subsided. MOST likely, that person:took LSD
At the “rave,” a student took a drug that caused a great burst of energy, along with badly distorted visual experiences. Most likely, the drug the student took was:Ecstasy
A person who uses the drug Ecstasy at a crowded party begins to feel too hot, and immediately drinks lots of fluids. This person:may be in trouble; the person may experience hypothermia or water intoxication
The chief danger of LSD use is:the possibility of very powerful, sometimes negative, reactions
The duration of most of the effects of cannabis is about:two to six hours
Marijuana users in the 1960s were less likely to develop drug dependence than users around the year 2000 because the marijuana available in the 1960s had:much less THC
Three chronic marijuana users — a “light” user, a “moderate” user, and a “heavy” user — stop using marijuana. Several weeks later, abnormal blood flow, which had occurred in the brains of all three prior to quitting, had MOST likley:returned close to normal for the “light” and “moderate” users only, but still remained at abnormal levels for the “heavy” user
If someone opposes the medical use of THC, MOST likely, the person may do so because:of legal or moral reasons
Throughout most of the United States, it is illegal to use marijuana, even for medical reasons. Compared to other nations, this is:common; most countries do not allow either medical or recreational use of marijuana
Barry drank quite a lot at the biggest party of the year. Later, he had trouble falling asleep, so he took a barbiturate. If he dies from respiratory failure during the night, it is probably because the alcohol and barbiturate had:a synergistic effect
Polysubstance use involving illegal drugs occurs in about what percent of U.S. illegal drug users?over 60 percent
Researchers have found that substance use disorders are more common among some religious groups than others, and generally are more common among some groups than among others. Together, these findings provide the MOST support for which view of substance abuse disorders?sociocultural
One longitudinal study found that men who develop alcoholism were initially MORE:impulsive in adolescence
“Drug dependence may develop because one finds drug use rewarding when it reduces tension.” Which view of substance abuse would MOST agree with this statement?behavioral
Daniel, an intravenous heroin user, feels intense cravings when he sees hypodermic needles. This may be an example of:classical conditioning
A person with a substance abuse problem has just self-administered by intramuscular injection an overdose of fentanyl, a very powerful synthetic narcotic. A potentially fatal side effect of fentanyl overdose is that breathing stops. Assuming the drug would interfere with breathing when it reaches the brain, the person should experience breathing difficulty:in a few minutes
Assume a researcher finds that overuse of a drug reduces the body’s production of neurotransmitters. Thus, if an abuser of this drug stops taking the drug, withdrawal symptoms occur until the brain begins producing normal levels of neurotransmitters again. Such a finding would most directly support which view of the cause of substance-abuse disorders?biochemical
Research indicates that the MOST important neurotransmitter in the “pleasure pathway” of the brain is probably:dopamine
Is there any explanation of a genetic explanation for substance abuse disorders?Maybe; those with a substance use disorder are more likely than those without a disorder to have an abnormal D2 receptor gene
A researcher reports that a drug indirectly stimulates a reward center in the brain rather than directly stimulating it. The drug the researcher is studying could be any of the following drugs EXCEPT:cocaine
A friend says, “I’m thinking about getting some help for my problem drinking. What’s the most commonly used form of treatment?” Your BEST answer is:“self-help groups.”
Psychodynamic therapies may not be very effective in the treatment of substance-related disorders because:finding the cause of a substance-related disorder is less important than treating the abuse as an independent problem
A client being treated for alcohol abuse receives just enough of a drug called curare to produce temporary paralysis just as that client takes a swig of beer. Presumably, sufficient pairings of paralysis and alcohol will reduce the client’s desire for alcohol. This production is called:aversion therapy
According to reports about the effectiveness of Drug Courts and Sobriety High programs, how likely are those who complete these programs to violate the law again compared with those who do not complete them?one-third as likely
Sobriety High and Drug Court programs:cost more than regular educational programs, but save society money in the long run
What would those who support the Alcoholics Anonymous approach to treating alcoholism have to say about the cognitive-behavioral procedure called relapse-prevention training?They would oppose relapse-prevention training because it does not require sobriety
Detoxification procedures may involve any of the following, EXCEPT:initially increasing the substance dose to make the substance aversive
The purpose of an antagonist drug is to:block or change the effect of an addictive drug
The use of methadone in drug maintenance programs is controversial because methadone:produces withdrawal sometimes more difficult than heroin withdrawal
One of the features of Alcoholics Anonymous is:peer support
Alcoholics Anonymous supports the belief that alcoholics should:cease drinking entirely
Evidence for the effectiveness of self-help programs comes MOSTLY from:testimonials from those who have gone through such a program
A clinician wishes to begin a drug abuse prevention campaign in a community. The most important thing the clinician can do is to:provide a consistent message across the media about drug abuse
An individual goes to a casino two weekends every year. While there, he usually loses several thousand dollars gambling. In between casino visits, he neither gambles nor thinks much about gambling. The MOST accurate assessment of this behavior would be:This behavior is not a gambling disorder
Gambling disorder is MOST common among:teenagers and college students who are feeling distressed
“I’ve been diagnosed with gambling disorder,” a friend says, and then asks, “What theory does the best job of explaining how I developed this disorder?” Based on current research, your BEST answer is:“No one is really sure; we need more research.”
“Internet use disorder” is not in the DSM-5, but if it is included in the next edition, a research-based estimate of the percentage of people in the United States who would fit the diagnostic criteria would be about:1 percent