Astronomy

A scientific theory can be proven wrong ifscientists gather new data that disprove its predictions
If a scientific theory cannot be tested, it is assumed to be true(True or False)False
If you were to specify your address in the universe, listing your membership from the smallest to largest physical structures, it would be:Earth, Solar System, Milky Way, Local Group, Virgo Supercluster, the universe
Observed patterns are usually due to some underlying scientific explanation.(True or False)True
One of the central assumptions in astronomy is that the physical laws of nature:are the same everywhere
Our Sun is the most massive and luminous star in the Milky Way.(True or False)False
Our universe is approximately __________ years old.14 billion
A scientific theory is an undisputed fact.(true or false)False
Earth revolves around the Sun in the same direction Earth spins about its axis.(True or False)True
If a star rises on the eastern horizon, it will set on the western horizon 6 hours later.(True or False)False
The direction directly overhead of an observer defines his/her:zenith
No matter where you are on Earth, stars appear to rotate about a point called the:celestial pole
The language of science ismathematics
Constellations are arbitrary groupings of stars in the sky.(true or false)true
The seasons on Earth are caused by the change in distance between the Sun and Earth.(True or False)False
The apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere during a year is called the:ecliptic plane
If you go out at exactly 9 P.M. each evening over the course of one month, the position of a given star will move westward by tens of degrees. What causes this motion?The revolution of the earth around the sun
When the Northern Hemisphere experiences summer, the Southern Hemisphere experiences:winter
Leap years occur because:orbital period is 365.24 days
We experience seasons because:the Earth’s equator is tilted relative to the plane of the solar system
The shortest day of the year for a person living in the SOUTHERN Hemisphere is the:summer solstice(June 1)
The Moon undergoes synchronous rotation, and as a consequence the:rotational period of the Moon equals the orbital period of the Moon around the Earth
If there is a full Moon out tonight, approximately how long from now will it be in the third quarter phase?one week
The observed phase of the Moon changes over the course of one night.(True or False)False
During which lunar phase do solar eclipses occur?new
A partial lunar eclipse occurs when:the Moon passes through part of the Earth’s shadow
the Moon passes through part of the Earth’s shadow(true or false)false
When a planet exhibits retrograde motion, it appears to move westward for weeks at a time.(True or false)True
Johannes Kepler obtained accurate data on the positions of the planets in the sky over time, which Galileo used to prove that planets revolved around the Sun.(True or False)False
Which was a contribution to astronomy by Copernicus?Sun lies at the center of the Solar System
What do we call the five stars that move “backward” for weeks at a time before moving forward with the rest of the stars?planets
The heliocentric model was actually first proposed byAristarchus
Whose naked-eye observations of the planets were used by Kepler to formulate three rules for planetary motion?Tycho Brahe
Isaac Newton was the first scientist to use a telescope for astronomical discoveries.(True or False)False
When the Earth catches up to a slower moving outer planet and passes it in its orbit like a faster runner overtakes a slower runner in an outside lane, the planet:retrograde motion
More massive objects fall faster in the Earth’s gravitational field than less massive objects.(True or False)False
What force holds planets in their orbits?Gravity
Which scientist ended up under house arrest due to his support of the heliocentric model?Galileo
In the absence of air friction, a 0.001-kg piece of paper and a 0.1-kg notebook are dropped from the same height and allowed to fall to the ground. How do their accelerations compare?The acceleration is the same
Which of the following did NOT require the use of a telescope to observe?retrograde motion of the planets
What did Galileo discoverspots on the Sun, moons orbiting Jupiter,and Venus exhibiting phases like the Moon
Astronauts in the space station feel weightless as they orbit the earth
because there is no gravity acting on them.(True or false)
False
A satellite is a less massive object (true or false)true
The force of gravity that an object has is directly related to its:mass
Which of the following properties of an astronaut changes when he/she is standing on the Moon, relative to when the astronaut is standing on Earth?weight
What is true about a comet that is on an elliptical orbit around the Sun?its the fastesst when its closer to the sun
Astronauts orbiting Earth in the space shuttle feel weightless in space because:free fall
If the distance between the Earth and Sun were cut in half, the gravitational force between these two objects would:increase by 4
Astronauts orbiting Earth in the space shuttle feel weightless in space because:they are in constant free fall around the Earth
A radio photon travels more slowly than a gamma ray photon.(true or false)false
The light-year is a unit of:distance
How do the wavelength and frequency of red light compare to the wavelength and frequency of blue light?Red light has a longer wavelength and lower frequency
As wavelength increases, the energy of a photon __________ and its frequency
__________.
decreases, decreases
Astronauts in the space station feel weightless as they orbit the earth because there is no gravity acting on them.(true or false)false
A satellite is a less massive object in free fall around a more massive object.(True or False)True
The force of gravity that an object has is directly related to its:mass
Which of the following properties of an astronaut changes when he/she is standing on the Moon, relative to when the astronaut is standing on Earth?Weight
Which of the following is true about a comet that is on an elliptical orbit around the Sun?The comet’s speed is greatest when it is nearest the Sun.
Astronauts orbiting Earth in the space shuttle feel weightless in space because:free fall
If the distance between the Earth and Sun were cut in half, the gravitational force between these two objects would:increase by 4
IF a planet is 1/4 the mass of Earth but the same radius as the Earth. Your weight would(increase or decrease) by a factor of…decrease:4
Suppose you are suddenly transported to a planet with 1/4 the radius of Earth but the same mass as the Earth. Your weight would __________ by a factor of __________.increase,16
A radio photon travels more slowly than a gamma ray photon(true or false)False
The light-year is a unit of:distance
How do the wavelength and frequency of red light compare to the wavelength and frequency of blue light?Red has a longer wavelength and lower frequency
As wavelength increases, the energy of a photon __________ and its frequency __________.decreases; decreases
Our Solar System is likely unique among the stars in our galaxyFalse
When astronomers began searching for extra-solar planets, they were surprised to discover Jupiter-sized planets much closer than 1 AU from their parent stars. Why is this surprising?These planets must have formed at larger radius where
temperatures were cooler and then migrated inward.
Mercury has the largest core compared to the size of the planet.true
The interior of the Earth is differentiated because it cooled very quicklyfalse
Ocean tides on Earth are caused only by the Moon.false
The age of the Solar System can be determined most accurately byradioactive dating of rocks retrieved from the Moon
Mars, Venus, and Earth are much less heavily cratered than Mercury and the Moon. This is explained by the fact that:Mars, Venus, and Earth were geologically active longer than Mercury
and the Moon
Studies of the amount of cratering at different locations on the Moon indicate that:the rate of cratering in the Solar System has changed dramatically
over time
The fact that Earth’s interior is differentiated suggests thatit was liquid at some point in the past
What is the best explanation for the heating of Earth’s interior today?Decay of radioactive elements
Which of the following will NOT be a consequence of Earth’s consumption of the bulk of its radioactive “fuel” in the future?Earth will spin more slowly on its axis
The North American Plate and the Pacific Plate are sliding past one another at a rate of approximately 3 cm/year. San Francisco, which is located on the edge of the North American Plate, is sliding southward toward Los Angeles, which is located on the Pacific Plate. If they are currently separated by a distance of 600 km, how many years will it take for the two cities to meet?20 million years
The largest volcanic mountains in the Solar System are found onmars
We suspect that Mars once had liquid water on its surface because:all of the above
How much of the celestial sphere can
an Earth observer see at one time?
exactly half
Imagine that from your current location, you observe a star rising directly in the east. When this star reaches its highest position above the horizon, where will it be?high in the southern sky
Where would the observer look to see the
star indicated by the arrow?
High in the southeast
Why is it cold in the winter?the sun is lower in the sky
Imagine that Earth’s orbit were changed to be a perfect circle. How would this affect the seasons?it would be the same
How much of the Moon is illuminated by
the Sun?
Always half
Does earth have phases like the moonit depend on where you’re looking from
Epicycles were used in Ptolemy’s model to
explain
why retrograde motion occurred
What was the main advantage of Copernicus’s heliocentric theory over Ptolemy’s geocentric theory?it was simpler
Earth is closer to the Sun in January. From this fact, Kepler’s 2nd law tells usEarth is moving faster in January
stopped at lecture nine