ANSWERS – Module 9: Learning and Memory

________ is an example of motor learning.Learning to swing a golf club
An example of relational learning isforming a mental map of a room based on your experience in the room.
Your ability to recognize a series of photos that you looked at a month ago is an example ofperceptual learning
The pyramidal cells of hippocampal field CA1 are unique in thataxon firing results in action potentials along the dendrites.
The NMDA receptor is unusual in that it is ________-dependent and ________- dependent.voltage; neurotransmitter
The NMDA receptor controls ________ and is normally blocked by ________.a calcium channel; magnesium ions
Instrumental conditioning involves strengthening connections betweencircuits that detect a stimulus and motor control circuits that produce a response.
Damage to the caudate nucleus/putamen in rats would be expected toimpair instrumental conditioning.
The ________ pathway connects the ventral tegmental area with the nucleus accumbens.mesolimbic
Procedural memory does not rely on the _______ and ________ memory system in the same way as ________ memory.hippocampus; medial temporal lobe; declarative
H.M. could learn parts of new motor skills.True
Which is true of anterograde amnesia?Both A and C.
Simple perceptual learning involvesthe recognition of particular stimuli or categories of stimuli.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can disrupt neural circuits in awake humans. Thenotion that short-term memory (STM) for a visual stimulus involves continued activation ofthe appropriate visual association cortex is supported by studies in whichTMS applied to the ventral stream disrupted STM for a visual pattern.
Inactivating ______ in the amygdala would be likely to _______ fear memory in rats.PKMzeta; impair
An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate.

What is the unconditioned response?

accelerated heart rate
Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?Tom studied hard for his physiological psychology exam. He can now draw a detailed diagram of a neuron.
Memory for skills and habits are not formed in the hippocampus.True
Which of the following is not a common feature of semantic and episodic memory?Behavioral expression of what is retrieved is obligatory.
Which of the following is not a unique feature of episodic memory?Storage of information is highly sensitive to context.
Which of the following is true of learning?Learning involves the modification of the nervous system by experiences.
The key function of instrumental conditioning is to allow the organism toadjust behavior according to its consequences.
Which of the following is true of learning and memory?The capacity to learn allows an organism to profit from experience.
Stimulus-response learning involves the ability toexhibit a specific behavior in the presence of a specific stimulus.
Which of the following is true of long-term depression (LTD)?LTD is associated with a decrease in the number of AMPA receptors in the postsynaptic neuron.
The formation of long-term potentiation requires the production of the proteinPKN-zeta.
The perforant pathwayinterconnects the entorhinal cortex with the granule cells of the dentate gyrus.
Inactivation of type II calcium calmodulin kinase would be expected toblock the formation of long-term potentiation.
________ is a strong candidate to act as a retrograde messenger from the dendrite to the terminal button.Nitric oxide
Which of the following is important for the acquisition of complex behaviors that become routine?As a person becomes proficient in the behavior, the control of the process is transferred to the basal ganglia.
Damage to the ________ would be expected to impair instrumental learning in rats.basal ganglia
A person with retrograde amnesia can recall what they had for breakfast today.True
The major finding of the study by Standing (1973), in which subjects were shown 10,000slides and then tested for recognition at various times thereafter, was thatpeople were able to recognize most of the slides for a time interval of weeks.
The ________ plays a key role in short-term memory for all sensory systems.prefrontal cortex
One of Toms friends has a night of boozing on many Vodka screwdrivers, and eating much pizza and salad with bacon bits. After becoming sick, she refuses to eat bacon bits. This is an example of which type of memory?classical conditioning
Which is true of the Morris Water Maze?B. Conceptually, the task derives from place cells.
C. It is often used as a general assay of cognitive function.
________ are neurons in the ______ that exhibit a high rate of firing whenever an animal is in a specific location in an environment corresponding to the cell’s “place field”.none of the above
(place cells; hypothalamus)
“Paris is the capital of France” is an example of:semantic memory.
Declarative memory is _______ and nondeclarative memory is _________.“knowing what” ; “knowing how”
Which is true of anterograde amnesia?A. Patients with anterograde amnesia quite often show normal memory for events prior to the incident responsible for the memory deficit.
B. Patients with anterograde amnesia have severely impaired ability to recall information about events occurring after the incident.
To send information to the nucleus accumbens, the _________ uses _________.ventral tegmental area; dopamine
Which statement is false?The primary contrast between episodic and semantic memory is that episodic memories are memories which can be implicitly described and stated, while semantic memory is concerned with concepts and ideas.
Which statement is false about semantic dementia?Although patients can no longer speak fluently, they remember the words and the meaning of words.
You are listening to a song on the radio while doing your homework. The phone rings. Your mother has called to tell you that your favorite uncle has died after being hit by a car. Three months later, you again hear the same song and suddenly feel very sad. In this example,the unconditional response isfeeling sad when your mother calls with the bad news.
Which of the following is true of motor learning?Motor learning involves changes in the motor pathways.
Long-term potentiation may involve the formation of ________ within the postsynaptic dendrite, which then acts on the presynaptic element to increase the release of ________.nitric oxide; glutamate
Which factor below normally prevents the calcium channel of the NMDA receptor from opening in response to only glutamate?The channel is blocked by Mg2+ ions.
An example of a natural reinforcer isfood for a hungry rat.
James Olds and Peter Milner reported that electrical stimulation of rat braincould have reinforcing effects.
Which is true of anterograde amnesia?A. They may not recognize people they met just moment’s before.
C. It results from a failure of memory encoding and storage.
CER is blocked by AP5 (_______) in the __________.NMDA antagonist; amygdala
A stimulus that predicts an ______ outcome will change neural transmission in the ______ to produce the somatic, autonomic and endocrine signs of _______, as well as increased attention to that stimulus.aversive; amydala; fear
Which of the following is not a unique feature of episodic memory?Storage of information is highly sensitive to context.
The________ states that a weak synapse will be strengthened if its activation occurs at thesame time that the postsynaptic neuron fires.Hebb rule
Relational learning involves changes inconnections between different regions of sensory association cortex.
Persistence of long-term potentiation for more than an hour requiresincreased protein synthesis within the postsynaptic dendrite.
Associative long-term potentiation reflects increased ________ produced by changes in ____ ____.calcium entry; NMDA receptors
In a typical long-term potentiation (LTP) study, a stimulating electrode is inserted into theperforant path, while a recording electrode is inserted into the dentate gyrus. LTP isproduced in this preparation by delivering a(n) ________ via the stimulating electrode.burst of 100 electrical pulses in a few seconds
Long-term potentiation is associated with the movement of ________ to the _______.AMPA receptors; tip of dendritic spines
Studies by Schultz and colleagues suggest that release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbensdoes not occur for an expected reinforcing stimulus (fruit juice).
Which of the following is an outcome related to the discovery by Olds and Milner of “pleasure centers” in the brain?Drugs of abuse appear to act via the same circuits discovered by Olds and Milner.
The ventral stream of visual association cortex continues into the ________ and carries information relating to ________.inferior temporal cortex; object recognition
__________ cortex neurons play a key role in short-term memory for all sensory systems.Prefrontal
________ is a type of _______ memory.associative learning; nondeclarative
Korsakoff’s Syndrome causes deficits in _______ memory in most patients, but keeps ______ functioning intact.Sorry, we couldn’t play that audio. Try checking your language settings or send us some feedback if this happens frequently.
Individuals who survive an hypoxic (hypoxia) episode often sustain damage to the ________ and __________.hippocampus; anterograde amnesia
The right hippocampal formation is activated byspatial information
Memory for skills and habits are not formed in the hippocampus.True;
Hippocampal damage produced by anoxia releases glutamate, which in turn activates NMDA
Declarative memory is synonymous for __________.explicit memory
Long-term potentiation may involve the formation of ________ within the postsynapticdendrite, which then acts on the presynaptic element to increase the release of ________.nitric oxide; glutamate
The dorsal stream of the visual cortex continues into the ___________ and carries information relating to _______________.posterior parietal cortex, object location
Research by Owen (1992) and Koroshetz (1993) demonstrate the importance of the basal ganglia in the learning of automatic responses. The subjects were patients with _______ and ________, both of which are degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia.Parkinson’s; Huntington’s
Models such as the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia and the eyeblink reflex in the rabbit have been used to studyclassical conditioning.
___________ memories can be acquired gradually, whereas ___________ memories must be learned all at once.Semantic, episodic
Learning to recognize faces, melodies, and pictures are all examples of _________.non declarative memory tasks
There is considerable evidence that when learned behaviors become automatic and routine, they are transferred to the ______.basal ganglia
The Morris water maze requires which of the following types of learning?relational
Semantic dementia is caused by degeneration of the neocortex of the _______.anterolateral temporal lobe
Which of the following is not part of the limbic cortex of the medial temporal lobe?amygdala
An action potential that occurs in some type of pyramidal cells, and plays a role in learning, is called adendritic spike
To successfully retain information in short term memory, two processes are required. The first is to filter out irrelevent information, involving the __________, and the second is to maintain relevant information, involving the ________.basal ganglia; right prefrontal cortex
Research has shown that memories older than approximately ____ years are relatively intact in people with __________ amnesia.fifteen, retrograde
Damage to the hippocampus or to regions of the brain that supply its inputs and receive its outputs, causes ________ amnesia.anterograde
The memory loss experienced by the famous case of H.M. was the result of surgery for his ______.epilepsy
speech disorder
brain tumor
The research by Knecht in 2004 demonstrated that __________ is an essential part of long-lasting, long-term potentiation.dopamine

(specifically L-DOPA)

Eyewitness accounts of crimes have sometimes been found to vary after more is learned about an incident. What mechanism is most likely responsible for this phenomenon?Reconsolidation
Why is it important for neuron stimulation to be rapid for LTP to occur?Rapid stimulation depolarizes the dendritic spine of the postsynaptic neuron, allowing for strengthening of weak synapses.
What mechanisms are involved in long-term potentiation (LTP)?Opening of NMDA channels, post-synaptic depolarization, rise in post-synaptic calcium concentration
What enables structural or biochemical changes at synapses?Synaptic plasticity

Synaptic plasticity enables structural and biochemical changes at synapses.

What process may be at the root of a successful classical conditioning experiment?Associative long-term potentiation

Associative LTP is the increase of a weak synapse due to association with a strong synapse. Thus, an unrelated, neutral stimulus can come to trigger a specific response.

Providing a drink of water to a thirsty animal is an example of ___________ conditioninginstrumental
Neural circuits that contain memories are established by strengthening some synapses and weakening others; the low-frequency stimulation of synaptic inputs to a cell can __________ their strength in a phenomenon known as ________________.decrease, long-term depression
Recognizing people by the shape of their faces and recognizing objects by how they feel or smell are examples ofPerceptual learning
When a rat encounters a painful stimulus, somatosensory input activates strong synapses in thelateral nucleus
Functional-imaging studies have shown that specific types of short-term visual memories involve activity of specific regions of thevisual association cortex.
This might explain how neurons are changed by experience in a way that would cause changes in behavior.Hebb rule
In the visual cortex, the ________ stream is involved with object recognition, whereas the ________ stream is involved with perception of the location of objects.ventral, dorsal
Memories can be altered or connected to newer memories through a process known as ________.reconsolidation
Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic forms of learning?emotional learning
An increase in the magnitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in postsynaptic neurons over the long term is known aslong-term potentiation
The ____________ is part of an important system involved in classically conditioned emotional responses.amygdala
__________ is/are involved in the acquisition of episodic memories and complex behaviors that involve deliberation or instruction.Transcortical connections
The acquisition of specific behaviors and skills is the most important form of __________ memory.implicit
______________ refers to the process by which experiences change our nervous system and hence our behavior.Learning
A ___________ excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is an intracellular measurement of the EPSPs produced by the synapse of the perforant path axons with the dentate granule cells.population
Damage to the basal ganglia or infusion of a drug that blocks NMDA receptors there can disruptinstrumental conditioning
An increased number of ______ receptors in the postsynaptic membrane strengthens the synapse.AMPA
Learning to recognize music, learning sequences, and classical conditioning are examples of ____________ memory tasks.nondeclarative
This type of learning involves learning about relationships among many stimuli.Spatial learning
People with anterograde amnesiashow impairment of complex relational learning.
_______________ receptors are glutamate receptors found in the hippocampal formation that control calcium ion channels.NMDA
Classical conditioning occurs when __________ stimuli and responses are transformed into ____________ stimuli and responses.unconditional, conditional
_____________ strengthening occurs when synapses are active while the membrane of the postsynaptic cell is depolarized.Synaptic