AP Human Geography CH6

1) The geographic study of the distribution of languages provides a good example ofA) the interplay between globalization and local diversity.
2) A literary tradition isD) the written form of a language.
3) ________ is to Canada as ________ is to the United States.A) French; Spanish
4) A form of a language spoken in a local area is aA) dialect.
5) All but which are true about the English language?D) It is an isogloss.
6) English has achieved unprecedented acceptance globally due toB) its role as the common language of a global economy and culture.
7) Germanic invaders of England included which tribe?A) Angles
B) Saxons
C) Jutes
D) Normans
E) A, B, and C Answer: E
8) Both the Angles and the Normans contributed to the development of the English language, because theyB) invaded England.
9) English is the most important language in North America primarily because ofA) the diffusion of English colonies.
10) The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present dayB) Denmark.
11) Dialects developed within England primarily becauseA) different Germanic invaders settled in different regions.
12) British and American English differ in all but which of the following?A) alphabet
13) Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds?A) Middle Atlantic
14) An isogloss isC) a boundary between language regions.
15) When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their groupC) isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into two.
16) The main difference between languages in the same family, branch, or group is howA) recently in time the languages were once the same.
17) A group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages is aB) language branch
18) A group a branch. family. group. root.of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history isC) language family
19) The second-largest language family isB) Sino-Tibetan.
20) Which of the following is not a Romance language?A) Bulgarian
21) The language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire was known asD) Vulgar Latin.
22) The most widely spoken language in Brazil isC) Portuguese.
23) A creolized language isB) a mix of indigenous and colonial languages.
24) The most widely spoken Indo-European language isA) English.
25) The four most frequently spoken branches of Indo-European include all butB) Celtic.
26) The two most important languages in South America areD) Portuguese and Spanish.
27) Urdu is the most important language ofD) Pakistan.
28) Russian is part of what language branch?A) Balto-Slavic
29) Celtic languagesA) were threatened by extinction in England.
B) are still spoken by people in France.
C) have been revived in some parts of the British Isles.
D) have an extensive body of literature.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
30) Marija Gimbutas’ theory points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancientC) Kurgans.
31) The KurgansC) were horse and cattle herders from the grassland steppes of present day Russia and
32) According to Colin Renfrew’s Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European languages diffused across EuropeD) with the diffusion of agriculture.
33) An Indo-European language is spoken in which of these European countries?A) Bulgaria
34) The two largest language families in the world areB) Sino-Tibetan and Indo-Eurpoean
35) When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface representE) possible prehistoric superfamilies.
36) When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the trunks of the trees representC) language families.
37) Every European country is dominated by Indo-European speakers exceptD) Finland, Hungary, and Estonia.
38) English is a part of which language group?C) West Germanic
39) English is part of which language branch?A) Germanic
40) English is part of which language family?D) Indo-European
41) Which group of the Germanic family is extinct?C) East Germanic
42) The Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language
because of
C) Iceland’s relative isolation from other places.
43) The language family encompassing the languages of the People’s Republic of China isD) Sino-Tibetan.
44) The language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world isD) Mandarin.
45) Chinese is written in the form ofC) ideograms.
46) The second most widely spoken language family in Europe isD) Uralic.
47) The large number of individual languages documented in Africa has resulted primarily fromA) thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups.
48) The most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa isB) Niger-Congo.
49) African languages are distinguished by the fact thatE) Linguists continue to add newly discovered languages to the African list.
50) Hebrew is an example ofC) a revived language.
51) The Flemings and Walloons live in what country?A) Belgium
52) The survival of languages depends onB) the political and military strength of its speakers.
53) The Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to differentB) language branches.
54) Official languages in Switzerland include all but which of the following?B) Flemish
55) A pidgin languageA) has no native speakers.
56) Basque is a good example of a(n)D) isolated language.
57) Australia and New Zealand’s language policies differ today in that AustraliaA) regards English as a way to promote cultural diversity while New Zealand gives greater
support to other languages.
58) Basque is spoken primarily inC) the Pyrenees Mountains.
59) A lingua franca isB) a language that is mutually understood by people who have different native languages.
60) Franglais isD) the use of English in the French language.
61) Which statement best describes the use of English on the Internet?A) English has become less dominant but is still the leading Internet language.
62) All languages have a literary tradition but these traditions are being lost.FLASE
63) Language is a part of culture.TRUE
64) The present distribution of languages around the world is due to technological advances and the diffusion of popular culture.FALSE
65) The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were Celtic tribes who invaded England 1500 years ago.FALSE
66) English was spread around the world through the establishment of British colonies.TRUE
67) Regional dialects in England can be traced back to the settlement patterns of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.TRUE
68) Americans spell words differently than the British primarily because of a strong national feeling in the United States for an independent identity.TRUE
69) New Englanders use a different dialect of English than other Americans because they came from different regions of England.TRUE
70) Nearly half the people in the world speak an Indo-European language.TRUE
71) Germanic, Romance, and Latin are all branches of Indo-European.FALSE
72) Evidence suggests the first speakers of Indo-European were the Kurgans.TRUE
73) Indo-European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers.TRUE
74) The most spoken language in China is Cantonese.FALSE
75) The most frequently spoken Afro-Asiatic language is Arabic.TRUE
76) A language family is a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language existing before recorded history.TRUE
77) Switzerland has four official languages.TRUE
78) Icelandic has probably changed less over time than any other Germanic languageTRUE
79) Basque is the only non-Indo-European language currently spoken in Europe.FLASE
80) Hebrew is an example of an extinct languageFALSE
81) What geographic factor accounts for the fact that both Americans and the British speak English?migration from Britain to the American colonies
82) What geographic factor accounts for the fact that both Americans and the British use different dialects of English?Both languages diverged because of isolation between the United States and Britain.
83) In what three ways does the English used in the United States differ from the English used in the United Kingdom?vocabulary; spelling; pronunciation
84) What is the most important language FAMILY in South America?
What is the most important language BRANCH of that family in South America? What are the two most important INDIVIDUAL languages in South America?
Indo-European; Romance; Spanish, Portuguese
85) Name the world’s largest language family (used by nearly half of the world’s population).Indo-European
86) Name the world’s second largest language family (used by nearly one-fourth of the world’s population).Sino-Tibetan
87) Name the most important language branch in each region of Europe.
a. northwestern
b. southwestern
c. eastern
a. Germanic; b. Romance; c. Slavic or Balto-Slavic
88) What is the significance of the Kurgans for the study of the geography of languages?proposed to be the first speakers of Indo-European language
89) What is the primary language family in the Middle East? What is the predominant individual language in the Middle East?Afro-Asiatic; Arabic
In what country do the Flemings and Walloons live? What is the official language in the southern half of that country?Belgium; Flemish or Dutch; French