APUSH Chapter 1

The origins of the majority of human existence in North America beganwith migrations from Eurasia over the Bering Strait.
Scholars estimate that human migration into the Americas over the Bering Strait occurred approximately11,000 years ago.
The first truly complex society in the Americas was that of theOlmec
Which of the following was NOT possessed by any of the early Central or South American civilizations such as the Incas, Mayas, and Aztecs?the use of wheeled vehicles
The pre-Columbian American peoples in the Pacific Northwestfished salmon as their principal occupation.
The pre-Columbian North American peoples in the Southwestbuilt large irrigation systems for farming.
In the Great Plains region, most pre-Columbian societiesengaged in sedentary farming.
Prior to European contact, the eastern third of what is today the United Stateshad the most abundant food resources of any region of the continent.
Cahokia was a large trading center located near what present-day city?St. Louis
The agricultural practices of pre-Columbian tribes in the Northeast were characterized bya rapid exploitation of the land.
11. Many pre-Columbian tribes east of the Mississippi River were loosely linked bycommon linguistic roots.
12. Native American religions were closely linked tothe natural world.
13. Which statement best describes the role of women in pre-Columbian North American tribes?In all tribes, women cared for the children and prepared meals.
14. Regarding knowledge of the Americas prior to the fifteenth century, most Europeanswere entirely unaware of the existence of the Americas.
15. In the late fifteenth century, the desire in Europe to look for new lands was spurred in part bysignificant population growth.
16. The preeminent European maritime power in the fifteenth century wasPortugal.
20. Christopher Columbusthought the world was much smaller than it is in reality.
21. In his first voyage in 1492, Christopher Columbusmistook Cuba for China.
22. Christopher Columbus called the native people he encountered on his voyages “Indians” becausehe believed they came from the East Indies in the Pacific.
23. As a result of his third voyage in 1498, Christopher Columbus concluded thathe had encountered a continent separate from Asia.
24. Amerigo Vespuccihelped spread recognition of the idea that the Americas were new continents.
25. Who was the first known European to look westward upon the Pacific Ocean, in 1513?Vasco de Balboa
26. What European explorer gave the Pacific Ocean its name?Ferdinand Magellan
27. In 1518, Hernando Cort├ęs’s conquest of the Aztecs was made possible largely due tothe exposure of the Aztecs to smallpox.
28. Which statement about Spanish settlements in the New World is FALSE?The first Spanish settlers were mostly interested in farming.
29. An encomienda was alicense to exact tribute and labor from natives.
30. The first permanent Spanish settlement in what is now the United States wasSt. Augustine.
31. In 1680, the Pueblo Indians rose in revolt against Spanish settlers after the Spanishmade efforts to suppress Indian religious rituals.
32. To reduce conflicts, Spanish policy toward the Pueblo Indians in the eighteenth century involved all of the following EXCEPTan expansion of the encomienda system.
33. What factor is believed to have dramatically reduced New World native populations after contact with Europeans?Disease
34. In what way did sixteenth-century Europeans benefit from trade between the Americas and Europe?A large number of new crops became available in Europe.
35. Which of the following was NOT introduced by Europeans to the New World?Horses
36. In Spanish colonial societies, mestizoscame to make up the largest segment of the population.
37. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding African immigrants to the Americas between
1500 and 1800?
Almost all came against their will, and they made up over half of all immigrants to the New World.
38. At the time of the beginning of the slave trade, most Africanshad well-developed economies and political systems.
39. African and American Indian societies tended to be matrilineal, which meanspeople traced their heredity through their mothers.
40. In the fifteenth century, slavery in Africagenerally allowed certain legal protections for the enslaved.
41. In what chronological order, from earliest to latest, did European countries control the African slave trade?the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch
42. What condition(s) in England in the sixteenth century provided incentive for colonization?The availability of farmland was declining, while the population was growing.
43. Which statement regarding the economic theory of mercantilism is FALSE?It reduced the desire for nations to acquire and maintain colonies.
44. In England during the early sixteenth century, mercantilism thrived mostly on the basis of trade in which
commodity?
wool
45. In what way were Martin Luther and John Calvin important to English Puritans?They were the most influential English Puritans of the seventeenth century.
46. The teachings of John Calvinproduced a strong desire among his followers to lead lives that were virtuous.
47. The English Reformation resulted froma political dispute between King Henry VIII and the Catholic Church.
48. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the already festering English Puritan discontent was increased
by
the death of Queen Elizabeth.
49. England’s first experience with colonization came inIreland.
50. From their colonial experiences in Ireland, the English concluded thatEnglish colonists should maintain a rigid separation from an indigenous population.
51. Which statement about French colonization in the New World is FALSE?The French, like the English, tried to remain separate from native peoples.
52. The first permanent English settlement in the New World was established inJamestown
53. An important consequence of the defeat of the Spanish Armada was thatEngland found the seas more open to their control.
54. The colony of Virginia was named in honor ofElizabeth I.
55. The cause of the failure of the Roanoke colonyis historically inconclusive.