Cognitive Psychology: Memory

What experimental procedure is used to study how attention affects the processing of competing stimuli?Dichotic listening
Dichotic listening occurs whendifferent messages are presented to the left and right ears.
When a person is shadowing a message, he or she issaying the message out loud.
The cocktail party effect isthe ability to pay attention to one message and ignore others, yet hear distinctive features of the unattended messages.
The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously is known asdivided attention.
Controlled processing involvesclose attention.
Scene schema isknowledge about what is contained in a typical scene.
Location-based attention is whenpeople move their attention from one place to another.
According to Treisman’s feature integration theory, the first stage of perception is called the _______ stage.preattentive
Illusory conjunctions arecombinations of features from different stimuli.
The three structural components of the modal model of memory aresensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory.
Information remains in sensory memory forseconds or a fraction of a second.
Brief sensory memory for sound is known asechoic memory.
The effective duration of short-term memory, when rehearsal is prevented, is15-20 seconds.
The “magic number”, according to Miller, is7 plus or minus 2.
The primary effect of chunking is tostretch the capacity of STM.
If you remember something in terms of its meaning, the type of encoding you are using issemantic.
The emphasis of the concept of working memory is on how information ismanipulated.
The word-length effect shows that is is more difficult to remembera list of long words than list of short words.
One function of ________ is controlling the suppression of irrelevant information.the central executive
The inability to assimilate or retain new knowledge is known asanterograde amnesia.
The primacy effect is attributed torecall information stored in LTM.
Carrie answers her phone with “Hello?” A response, “Hi, Carrie!” comes from the other end of the line. Carrie responds back with “Hi, dad!” Carrie processed “Hi, Carrie” using a(n)auditory code in long-term memory.
The predominant type of coding in LTM issemantic.
Two types of declarative memory are ________ and ________ memory.episodic; semantic
This is an example of semantic memory:I remember the big island of Hawaii has many active volcanoes.
Phoebe steps up to the golf ball and hits down the fairway. She sees that the ball is heading towards someone, so she yells “Fore!” After her two partners hit their balls, they pick up their bags and start walking to the next hole. But Phoebe says, “Wait a minute, I haven’t teed off yet.” This behavior shows that Phoebe has a problem with _______ memory.Episodic.
The defining characteristic of implicit memory is thatwe are not conscious we are using it.
Jocelyn is inan experiment where she is presented words representing categories. She is presented the word “furniture” in an earlier trial, which makes it easier for her to later recall the word “chair” because of the similarity of meaning. Jocelyn’s memory enhancement for “chair” due to seeing the word “furniture” illustratesconceptual priming.
A multiple choice question is an example of a __________ test.recognition
Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished byrepeating it over and over.
According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on how information isencoded.
According to the levels of processing theory, what task will produce the best long-term memory for a set of words?Making a connection between each word and something you’ve previously learned
Memory for a word will tend to be better if the word si used in a complex sentence (like “the bicycle was blue, with high handlebars and a racing seat”) rather than a simple sentence (like “he rode the bicycle”). This probably occurs because the complex sentencecreates more connections.
The principle that we learn information together with its context is known asencoding specificity.
Memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval. This is calledtransfer-appropriate processing.
According to levels of processing theory, deep processing results in better memory. However, studies have shown that shallow processing can result in better memory when the individual encodes ________ and is tested _________.auditorially; auditorially
Students, beware! Research shows that ________ does not improve reading comprehension because it does not encourage elaborative processing of the material.highlighting
Hebb’s idea of long-term memory potentiation, which provides a physiological mechanism for the long-term storage of memories, includes the idea ofenhanced firing in the neurons.
The standard model of consolidation proposes that the hippocampus isstrongly active when memories are first formed and being consolidated but becomes less active when retrieving older memories that are already consolidated.