chap 11 intelligence
|Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to:|
c. identify children likely to have difficulty learning in school.
|Binet and Simon assumed that intellectually bright children:|
d. are as intellectually developed as average children who are older than they.
|To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children’s:|
b. reasoning skills.
|Five year old Jaime performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4 year old. Jaime’s mental age is:|
|Who would have been the least enthusiastic about a reliance on eugenics for the improvement of human intellectual functioning?|
|Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the:|
a. extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity.
|For the original version of the Stanford Binet, IQ was defined as:|
d. mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
|A 12 year old who responded to the original Stanford Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9 year old was said to have an IQ of:|
|Twelve year old Jerry has an IQ of 75 on the original version of the Stanford Binet. His mental age is:|
|The eugenics movement would have been most likely to encourage:|
a. selective breeding of highly intelligent people.
|During the World War I era, the U.S. government developed intelligence tests to evaluate newly arriving immigrants. For most proponents of the eugenics movement, inferior test scores were viewed as reflecting the immigrants’:|
c. innate mental abilities.
|Joni claims that she is intellectually gifted because she “possesses” an IQ of 145. She is most clearly committing the error known as:|
|In considering the nature of intelligence, experts would be most likely to agree that intelligence is a(n):|
b. ability to learn from experience.
|Factor analysis is a statistical procedure used to:|
d. identify clusters of closely related test items.
|In order to assess whether intelligence is a single trait or a collection of several distinct abilities, psychologists have made extensive use of:|
e. factor analysis.
|Spearman’s g factor refers to:|
c. a general intelligence that underlies success on a wide variety of tasks.
|Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual’s mental capacities?|
|Twenty five year old Carmella is mentally handicapped and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Carmella is:|
d. someone with savant syndrome.
|The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is:|
a. a diverse set of distinct abilities.
|Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:|
d. Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligences.
|Which of the following persons best illustrates Sternberg and Wagner’s concept of practical intelligence?|
c. Shelley, a newspaper reporter who has a knack for making connections with very important people
|The ability to control one’s impulses and delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-term goals is most clearly a characteristic of:|
a. emotional intelligence.
|Although Sheron scored well above average on the SAT, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates an inadequate level of:|
e. emotional intelligence.
|Howard Gardner is most likely to agree that the concept of intelligence includes:|
b. spatially analyzing visual input.
|There is a ________ correlation between head size and intelligence and a ________ correlation between brain size and intelligence.|
d. slightly positive; moderately positive
|Brain size (adjusted for body size) is ________ correlated with intelligence, and the brain’s rate of glucose consumption while performing cognitive tasks is ________ correlated with intelligence.|
a. positively; negatively
|Precocious college students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to:|
a. retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed.
|Studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brain’s:|
c. neural processing speed.
|Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called ________ tests.|
|A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.|
|Achievement tests are designed to:|
d. assess learned knowledge or skills.
|The written exam for a driver’s license would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test.|
|Aptitude tests are to ________ as achievement tests are to ________.|
d. future performance; current competence
|The WAIS consists of separate ________ subtests.|
d. verbal and performance
|Object assembly, picture arrangement, and block design are three subtests of the:|
|If a test is standardized, this means that:|
b. a person’s test performance can be compared with that of a pretested group.
|When Samson was told that he correctly answered 80 percent of the items on a mathematical achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test taker. Samson’s concern was directly related to the issue of:|
|Unlike today’s most widely used intelligence tests, the original Stanford-Binet can be most clearly criticized with respect to its:|
a. standardization sample.
|The bell shaped pattern that represents the frequency of occurrence of intelligence test scores in the general population is called a:|
d. normal curve.
|The normal curve would represent the distribution of:|
c. American women in terms of their physical heights.
|About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115.|
|Comparing the average performance of the initial WAIS standardization sample with the average performance of the most recent WAIS standardization sample provides convincing evidence of:|
c. the Flynn factor.
|During the 1960s and 1970s, performance on the WAIS ________ and performance on college entrance aptitude tests ________.|
b. improved; declined
|The decline in college aptitude test scores during the 1960s and 1970s was due in part to:|
a. the increasing academic diversity of students taking these tests.
|It would be most reasonable to suggest that the Flynn effect is due in part to:|
b. increasingly improved childhood health and nutrition.
|If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of:|
|Sandra completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of:|
|Psychologists assess the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test in order to measure the ________ of a test.|
|Validity is to reliability as ________ is to ________.|
b. accuracy; consistency
|A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity.|
c. high; low
|A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of:|
|Your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you receive the test, however, you find that very few questions actually relate to these topics. In this instance, you would be most concerned about the ________ of the test.|
|If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it is said that the test:|
b. is not valid.
|Psychologists measure the correlation between aptitude test scores and school grades in order to assess the ________ of the aptitude test.|
|Intelligence test scores are most likely to predict accurately the academic success of ________ students.|
a. elementary school
|Why does the predictive validity of general aptitude tests decrease as the educational level of the students who take them increases?|
c. There is a relatively restricted range of aptitude test scores among students at higher educational levels.
|The correlation between academic success and intelligence test scores will be highest if computed for a group of individuals whose scores range between:|
d. 70 and 130.
|The best indicator of infants’ intellectual aptitude is their:|
c. tendency to quickly shift their gaze from a familiar to a novel picture.
|In order for Mr. and Mrs. Goldberg to best predict their newborn daughter’s future intellectual aptitude they should:|
c. obtain information about their own levels of intelligence.
|Intelligence scores are most likely to be stable over a 1 year period for a ________ student whose intelligence test score is ________.|
d. tenth-grade; 95
|The highly positive correlations between scores received on comparable sections of the SAT and GRE provide evidence for the ________ of these test scores.|
|Mr. and Mrs. Lembo are parents of a mentally retarded child. It is most likely that their child:|
d. will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life.
|Margaret is mildly mentally retarded. She has achieved the equivalent of a fifth grade education and will soon begin vocational training so that she can earn a living. Margaret’s intelligence score is most likely between:|
d. 50 and 70.
|Individuals with Down syndrome are:|
d. born with an extra chromosome.
|Grouping children in separate educational classes according to their level of intellectual aptitude tends to ________ their self-esteem and ________ their academic achievement.|
d. decrease; have little effect on
|Gifted child education programs are most likely to be criticized for:|
b. limiting the concept of giftedness to superior academic aptitude.
|The correlation between intelligence test scores and creativity test scores is ________ among those whose intelligence score is ________ than 120.|
b. positive; less than
|Intrinsic motivation is an important component of:|
|Scientists are most likely to be creative if they:|
b. approach problems they find intrinsically interesting and satisfying to study.
|Which of the following suggestions would be least helpful to a young performing artist who wants to become a highly creative ballet dancer?|
c. “Win competitive performances that will lead to performance arts scholarship offers.”
|The similarity between the intelligence test scores of identical twins raised apart is:|
d. greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together.
|Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity?|
d. Identical twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together.
|Which pair of individuals is most likely to receive similar intelligence test scores?|
a. opposite sex fraternal twins
|The intelligence test scores of adopted children are least likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during:|
d. early adulthood.
|With increasing age, adopted children’s intelligence test scores become ________ positively correlated with their adoptive parents’ scores and ________ positively correlated with their biological parent’s scores.|
d. less; more
|The heritability of intelligence refers to:|
b. the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.
|If ten genetically identical individuals were all raised in different homes, the heritability of intelligence for this group would be ________ percent.|
|The heritability of intelligence is lowest among genetically ________ individuals who have been raised in ________ environments.|
c. similar; dissimilar
|The importance of environmental influences on intelligence is provided by evidence that:|
a. fraternal twins have more similar intelligence test scores than ordinary siblings.
b. intellectual development of neglected children in impoverished environments is often retarded.
c. Head Start programs for disadvantaged children lead to short term improvements in intelligence test scores.
d. all the above are true.
|Research indicates that Head Start programs:|
c. reduce the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education classes.
|Increasing years of schooling over the last half century have most likely contributed to:|
b. the Flynn effect.
|Disproportionately more Whites than Blacks would be admitted into American colleges if performance scores on ________ were the only criterion for college admissions.|
b. the WAIS
|On average, the intelligence test scores of the Wallonians are much higher than those of the Danasians. The difference in the average test scores of the two groups might be a product of:|
a. genetic differences between two groups with similar environments.
b. environmental differences between two groups with similar genetics.
c. both genetic and environmental differences between the two groups.
d. any of the above.
|Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that:|
b. the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are notably higher than those of North American children.
|The average difference in intellectual aptitude scores of white and black college graduates has been observed to be greatest when these individuals were:|
b. high school juniors.
|Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a(n):|
a. spelling bee.
|Boys outnumber girls at the ________ levels of reading ability and at the ________ levels of mathematical problem-solving ability.|
d. low; high
|Boys are most likely to outnumber girls in a class designed for students gifted in:|
|Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a(n):|
b. chess tournament.
|Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal development is most likely to facilitate the subsequent development of:|
c. spatial abilities.
|Research on gender and emotional intelligence suggests that women are more skilled than men at:|
c. interpreting others’ facial expressions of emotion.
|Most experts would agree that intelligence tests are “biased” in the sense that:|
a. test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.
|Experts who defend intelligence tests against the charge of being culturally biased and discriminatory would be most likely to highlight the ________ of intelligence tests.|
c. predictive validity
|When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test:|
c. is biased against members of their own ethnic group.
|Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have:|
b. helped limit reliance on educators’ subjectively biased judgments of students’ academic potential.