Chapter 12 – Adulthood Body and Mind

______ is the gradual physical decline that is related to aging and during which the body becomes less strong and efficient.senescence
_____ _____ refers to age-related physical changes that have a biological basis and are universally shared and inevitable.primary aging
_____ ___ refers to age-related changes that are due to environmental influences, poor health habits, or disease.secondary aging
Senescence happens after ____ stops.growth
Examples of primary aging are ____ hair, ____, and changes in _____ acuity. Examples of secondary aging include ____, diet, and ____.grey, wrinkles, visual, smoking, exercise
As the brain ages, reactions take ____ and complex memory tasks become ____ because neurons are firing more _____.longer, impossible, slowly
As the brain ages, _____ becomes more difficult with every passing decade and ______ become more difficult to ignore.multitasking, distractions
Losses of the brain are often associated with ___ ___.life choices
Drug abuse, excessive stress, poor circulation (HTN), and viruses all have to do with _____ aging.secondary
Past education, current intellectual activity, exercise, and overall health all promote ______ function.brain
No single variable affects quality of life in middle and late adulthood as much as _____.health
Korsikoff Syndrome is due to excessive ____ use and creates the inability to form ____ ____.alcohol, new memories
_______ refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a given population.mortality
______ refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds—physical and emotional, acute (sudden), chronic (ongoing), and fatal—in a given population.morbidity
______ is a long-term difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some physical, emotional, or mental condition.disability
______ is a measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic—physically, emotionally, and socially—an individual actually feels.vitality
The Alameda study provides evidence of a ____ lifestyle. However, _____ and eating _____ have no attribution to mortality. A _____ lifestyle in early adulthood paves the way to medical dispositions and problems later in life.healthy, snaking, breakfast, sedentary
Notable _____ in cigarette smoking in the United States over the past 50 years. Worldwide trends are ___ encouraging. Variations among nations, cohorts, and the sexes indicate that smoking is affected by ___ ___, ____, and advertising.declines, less, social norms, laws
Drinking in moderation (no more than ___ drinks a day) ____ life expectancy. Alcohol reduces ___ and strokes. ____ “good” cholesterol and ____ “bad” cholesterol and ____ blood pressure. However, _____ peak during this time.two, increases, CAD, increases, decreases, lowers, addictions
Heavy drinking ____ the risk of violent death and is implicated in 60 diseases. ____ drinking signals a problem: About __% of U.S. adults had five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past year. Disproportionate burden of harm in poorer countries because ____ and treatment strategies have not been fully established. This lead to an increase in death before age ___.increases, binge, 20, prevention, 60
Metabolism ____ by 1/3 between ages 20 and 60.decreases
Many adults choose __-calorie, __-nutrient foods. Only __% of U.S. adults eat three daily servings of vegetables. Too many high-calorie foods combined with too little activity leads to ___. Excess weight ____ the risk of every chronic disease (e.g., diabetes).
66% of U.S. adults are overweight; of those, __% are obese and __% are morbidly obese
high, low, 27, obesity, increases, 33, 6
Regular ___ ___ at every stage of life protects against serious illness. ____ for long hours correlates with almost every unhealthy condition. Even a little movement helps but more ___ ____(e.g. swimming, jogging, bicycling) is ideal.
The connection between ___ and ___ is causal: People who are more fit are likely to resist disease and to feel healthier as they age.
physical activity, sitting, intense exercise, exercise, health
Factors that prevent a decline in exercise are ____ and _____.friendships, communities
Well-educated, financially secure adults tend to live ____.longer
Suspected reasons for high SES adults to live longer include: education teaches _____ habits, it leads to high income therefore better housing and ____ ___, and higher _____ which is a protective factor.healthy, medical care, intelligence
_____ is the single largest preventable cause of death around the world.tobacco
There was a decrease in smoking in Canada because they don’t allow _____.advertising
In the Harvard Alumni Study 1962, only highly educated ___ ___ were used. This study concluded that an _____ in physical activity during middle adulthood = a ___ in mortality.white men, increase, decrease
General intelligence is represented by the letter ___.g
____ ___ is a construct based on the idea that intelligence is one basic trait that involves all cognitive abilities, which people possess in varying amounts. It cannot be measured ____ but be inferred from various abilities (e.g. vocabulary, memory, and reasoning). Many scientists are trying to find one common factor (genes, early brain development, or some specific aspect of health) that underlies ___.general intelligence, directly, IQ
In cross-sectional research both the U.S. Army and a Study of New England villages came to the conclusion that intellectual capabilities peaked around _____ yrs. old and steadily ____ after that.18-21, declined
Longitudinal data found many intellectual gains through adulthood but ___ cohorts often better than ____ cohorts. Probably due to changes in the _____ (more education, improved nutrition, smaller family size, fewer infections) and NOT changes in innate _____!
Longitudinal research is ____ than cross-sectional research but also has problems (e.g. practice effects, high attrition rates).
younger, older, environmental, intelligence, better
The ____ ___ is the rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations. It is unfair—and scientifically invalid—to compare __ scores of a cross section of adults of various ages. Older adults will score ____, but that does not mean they have ____ intellectual power.Flynn effect, IQ, lower, lost
_____-____ research combines both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.cross-sequential
The ____ _____ study in run by Schaie and follows adults throughout their life. A new cohort is added and followed every ___ years.Seattle longitudinal, 7
The Seattle longitudinal study found that people ____ in most mental abilities during adulthood and decline occurs ___ in life (around __ yrs old). Each particular ability has a distinct pattern for each _____.improve, later, 60, gender
_____ _____ is those types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough. Abilities such as ___ memory, ___ thought, and ___ of thinking are usually considered aspects of this intelligence.fluid intelligence, working, abstract, speed
_____ _____ is those types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning. ____ and general ____ are examples.crystallized intelligence, vocabulary, knowledge
_____ _____ is valuable in high school and college, as students are expected to remember and analyze various ideas.analytic intelligence
_____ _____ allows people to find a better match to their skills, values, or desires.creative intelligence
_____ _____ is useful as people age and need to manage their daily lives.practical intelligence
____ _____ with compassion is when people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well (Paul and Margaret Baltes, 1990).selective optimization
A ____ _____ is when someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful.selective expert
_____ is when a person is more skilled, proficient, and knowledgeable at a particular task than the average person. They do not necessarily have extraordinary _____ ability, and there are two kinds: ____ and ____ guide.expertise, intellectual, culture, context
In _____ _____, experts rely on their past experiences and on immediate contexts and their actions and novices follow formal procedures and rules.intuitive expertise
In _____ _____, experts process incoming information more quickly and analyze it more efficiently than non-experts; then they act in well-rehearsed ways that appear unconscious.automatic expertise
In ____ ____, experts have more and better strategies, especially when problems are unexpected.strategic expertise
In ___ ____, experts are creative and curious, deliberately experimenting and enjoying the challenge when things do not go according to plan.flexible expertise
Denny’s model of physical and cognitive aging is a typical curve of ___-_____ changes, shows the effects of ____ of the skill or ability, and shows the underlying age-related ____ curves.age-related, exercise, delay
An example of culture and context in expertise is ____.handwriting
Selective experts are ____ ____ system related. An example would be a ____.central nervous, typist
An example of an automatic expertise would be learning to ____.drive
An example of strategic expertise would be a ____ player.chess