Chapter 21 – Pharmacology

Study of the interaction of drugs and subcellular entities such as enzymes and DNA is calledMolecular pharmacology
Finding proper antidotes to the harmful effects of drugs is part of the specialty ofToxicology
Which of the following is a drug generic nameAmpicillin
Which agency holds the legal responsibility for deciding whether a drug may be distributed and soldFDA ( Food and Drug Administration)
The combination of two drugs can cause an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effectsSynergism
Insertion of suppositories areRectal adminstration
Drugs are swallowed and absorbed through the intestinal tractOral
Drugs are injected through a syringe into a muscle, vein or body cavityParenteral administration
Aerosols are administered in this wayInhalation
Drugs are applied on the skinTopical
What is anaphylaxisA type of hypersensitivity reaction
Drugs that block release of a substance that causes allergic reactions are calledAntihistamines
MorphineAnalgesic drug
Beta-blockerCardiovascular drug
HeparinAnticoagulant drug
EstrogenEndocrine drug
Amphetamine and caffieneStimulant drug
What is the effect of a diureticLowers blood pressure by promoting fluid excretion from the kidney
Penicillin is an example of which type of drugAntibiotic
A drug that works against fever isAntipyretic
Drugs that control anxiety and severe disturbances of behaviorTranquilizers
Drugs that relax without necessarily producing sleepSedatives
Drugs used to relieve pain, induce sleep and suppress coughAnalgesic
Drugs that produce loss of sensation throughout the entire bodyAnesthetics
Drugs to treat epilepsyAnticonvulsants
Agent that excites and promotes activityStimulant
Drug that promotes vomitingEmetic
Drug that relieves chest painAntianginal
Hypersensitivity reactionAnaphylaxis
Drug that is given by injectionParenteral
Legal, non-commercial name for a drugGeneric
Harmful effects of a drugToxicity
Drug that relieves painAnalgesic
Drugs that are applied locally on the skinTopical
Drug that restores heart to a regular cycleAntiarrhythmic
Unexpected effect produced in a sensitive individual, but not seen in most patientsIdiosyncrasy
Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drugAntidote
Harmful effects of a drugToxicity
Drug action in which the combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug aloneSynergism
Central nervous system (CNS) stimulantAmphetamine
Drug that relieves constipationCathartic
Drug that stops the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cellsBeta-blocker
Drug that lowers body temperatureAntipyretic
Antibiotic substanceErythromycin
Pertaining to the delivery of a drug within the membranes lining the spinal cordIntrathecal
Factor in the patients condition that prevents the use of a drug or treatmentContraindication
Drug that acts as a sedativeBenzodiazapine
Pertaining to killing microorgansmsBactericidal
Drug that prevents abnormal brain activityAnticonvulsant
Drug that opens airwaysBronchodilator
Particles of drug suspended in airAerosol
Tube for introducing or withdrawing fluidsSyringe
Drug that prevents vomiting and nauseaAntinauseant
Pertaining to giving a drug by injection into the skin. muscles or veinsParenteral
Drug that blocks the action of histamine and helps prevent symptoms of allergyAntihistamine
AnthistamineRelieves allergic symptoms
AnalgesicNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
StimulantCaffeine or amphetamines
AntibioticPenicillin or erythromycin
Drug that widens blood vesselsVasodilator
Drug that reduces blood pressureAntihypertensive
Drug that strengthens the force and efficiency of the heartbeatDigoxin
Drugs the narrows blood vesselsVasoconstrictor
Drug that prevents chest pain due to ischemiaAntianginal
Drug that reduces lipids in bloodCholesterol lowering drug
Drug that promotes excretion of urine, lowering blood pressureDiuretic
AntacidEpigastric discomfort
AntibioticBacterial pneumonia
TranquilizerSevere behavior disturbances and anxiety
DigoxinCongestive heart failure
AntihypertensiveHigh blood pressure
ProgestinsAbnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance
AmphetamineCentral nervous system stimulant
AntiemeticAgent that acts against vomiting
DiureticAgent that lowers blood pressure by increasing the release of urine
NarcoticHabit forming drug that produces sleep and stupr
HypodermicPertaining to under the skin
LaxativeDrug that relieves constipation
AnalgesicDrug that relieves pain
ToxicityHarmful effects of drugs
Additive actionCombination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each
Commercial name for a drug; trademark or trade nameBrand name
Exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered drug or foreign proteinAnaphylaxis
Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drugAddiction
Particle of a drug suspended in airAerosol
Chemical formula for a drugChemical name
Factor in patient’s condition that prevents the use of a particular drug or treatmentContraindication
Legal, noncommercial name for a drugGeneric name
Combination of two drugs give less than an additive effectAntagonistic action
Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drugAntidote
Drug action on which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of eachAdditive action
Study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure and biological effectMedicinal chemistry
Condition caused by treatment given by physicians or medical personnelIatrogenic
Drugs are given by mouthOral administration
Administration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouthInhalation
Drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles or veinsParenteral administration
Study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules, enzymes or cell surface receptorsMolecular pharmacology
Location for preparing and dispensing drugsPharmacy
Specialist in preparing and dispensing drugsPharmacist
Study of the effects and strength of a drug within the bodyPharmacodynamics
Drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectumRectal administration