BA 370 chapter 5 Haddock

By paying close attention to customer needs and continuously monitoring the business environment in which it operates, a good marketer can identify potential opportunities.True
When analyzing the immediate environment and the macroenvironment, marketers must be careful to keep the firm at the center of all analyses.False
The marketing firm must consider the entire business process, all from a consumer’s point of view.True
In the immediate environment, the competition has no effect on consumers.False
The three elements of the consumer’s immediate environment are the company, competition, and corporate partners.True
Demographics are transmitted by words, literature, and institutions from generation to generation.False
Demographic profiles of customers provide an easily understood “snapshot” of the typical consumer in a specific target market.True
As the euro becomes more expensive relative to the dollar, Americans are likely to purchase more European wines.False
Macroenvironmental factors include the company, competition, and corporate partners.False
Members of Generation Y are also called Millennials.True
As the children of the Baby Boomers, Generation X is the biggest cohort since the original postwar World War II boom.False
The members of Generation X are also referred to as Digital Natives.False
One of the social trends discussed in the text that is shaping consumer values in the United States and around the world is a concern about the vast disparity in income.False
Culture can broadly be defined as the shared meanings, beliefs, morals, values, and customs of a group of people.True
Companies such as Burger King no longer use cartoon characters to promote products such as burgers and fries because the characters do not retain popularity among young children for very long.False
Socially responsible marketing involves a strategic effort by firms to supply customers with environmentally friendly, sustainable merchandise and services.False
Firms that disingenuously market products or services as environmentally friendly, with the goal of gaining public approval and sales rather than actually improving the environment, are engaging in greenwashing.True
The next broad wave of mobile applications is likely to expand the use of wireless payments through applications such as Apple Pay, Google Wallet, Master Card’s Easy Pay, and Softcard Mobile Wallet, all of which enable customers’ phones to serve as m-wallets.True
Inflation refers to the cost of borrowing money.False
The 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits monopolies and other activities that would restrain trade or competition and makes fair trade within a free market a national goal.True
Consumers’ needs and wants, as well as their ability to purchase, depend on a host of factors that remain consistent over time.False
Parties that work with the focal firm are its corporate partners.True
Jeanne, who lives in Boston, refers to Pepsi as “tonic,” while Paul, who lives in Chicago, calls it “pop.” This is an example of a regional culture difference.True
Lisle Hair Company keeps track of the gender and age of its customers so it can target e-mails to them and be sure to have the right hair products in stock when they visit. This is an example of the use of demographics in marketing.True
Applying age as a basis to identify customers is unethical, as it involves stereotyping.False
As a retail clothing store manager, Randy frequently asks his staff what customers are saying and what they are asking for. He also attends the quarterly clothing show at the regional merchandise mart. Randy’s efforts will likely help himidentify potential opportunities.
The centerpiece of the marketing environment analysis framework isconsumers.
A firm’s macroenvironment includes all of the following exceptcompetition.
The center of all marketing efforts isthe consumer.
The creation of CVS Health’s mobile apps in connection with its onsite MinuteClinics is a response to a _________ trend that surrounds health and wellness concerns.social
One of the goals of value-based marketing isto offer greater value than competitors offer.
Ryan knows that one of the goals of value-based marketing is to provide greater value to consumers than competitors offer. To accomplish this goal, Ryan’s firm must look at everything it doesfrom a consumer’s point of view.
Yvonne knows her firm must look at everything it does from a consumer’s point of view. One major difficulty is that consumers’ __________ change(s) over time.needs, wants, and ability to purchase
Select the statement that best describes the key traits of Generation Y.This generation varies the most in age, ranging from teenagers to adults who have their own families.
Which of the following statements accurately describes the current income distribution in the United States?Wealthy households are outpacing both poor and middle-class households.
When you register your telephone number with the National Do Not Call Registry, you are responding to a need forprivacy.
In the immediate marketing environment, the first factor that affects the consumer isthe firm itself.
Successful firms focus their efforts on satisfying customer needs thatmatch their core competencies.
The Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is known for top-quality medical care. For decades, even presidents and dictators from around the world flew to the Mayo Clinic to utilize its services. The Mayo Clinic used its reputation to create additional medical facilities in Jacksonville, Florida, and elsewhere. This is an example of a firm focusing its efforts on satisfying customer needs thatmatch its core competencies.
Yuri is considering a new promotional campaign in which he will compare his products to those of his competitors. Before initiating the promotional campaign, Yuri will assess his competitors’ strengths, weaknesses, andlikely response to his promotional activities.
The firms that work along with the focal firm to provide goods and services to consumers are viewed ascorporate partners.
Yellow Trucking provides transportation services for Dan’s Delicious Donuts so that Dan’s stores always have fresh stock. Yellow Trucking is an example of acorporate partner
The difference between a firm’s immediate marketing environment and its macroenvironment is that the macroenvironmentis external
The shared meanings, beliefs, morals, values, and customs of a group of people constitute theirculture
Political candidates are notorious for appealing to the different beliefs and values of groups of potential voters in different areas of the country. These politicians are appealing to differences inregional culture
Insight Guides, a line of travel books, provides travelers with background information about people’s beliefs, values, and customs in various parts of the world. Insight’s books educate travelers about a country’sculture
When studying culture, the challenge for marketers is to determine whether culturecan help identify a particular group that might be interested in the marketer’s products.
Late in the day on September 11, 2001, the day of the World Trade Center attacks, Americans purchased all the American flags Walmart stores had available, nationwide. These purchases were indicative ofcountry culture.
The United States has often been called the “melting pot” society, integrating people from many different cultures into the social fabric of the country. The challenge for marketers is to determine whether a group’s culturecan be used as a relevant identifier for a particular target group.
When considering the use of a radio commercial in England that was designed for U.S. markets, a marketer would likely need to consider which of the following aspects of culture that might be different between the two countries?language
In New England, foot-long sandwiches are called “grinders,” while in many other parts of the country they are called “subs.” This is an example of the impact ofregional culture.
The shift of population from the Rust Belt in the North to the Sun Belt in the South and Southwest will likelyreduce regional cultural differences.
Typical demographic data include all of the following exceptlanguage differences.
When marketers look at advertising media they often begin with viewer or listener profiles such as age, income, gender, and race. They then compare the media profile with their target audience. These marketers are using __________ to see if the media “fit” with their advertising agenda.demographics
Generational cohorts are groups of people of the same generation who have similar __________ because they have shared experiences and are in the same stage of life.purchase behaviors
Viewers of the World Series are likely to see ads for beer and cars, and viewers of the Academy Awards broadcast are likely to see ads for clothing and hair care products, due todiffering demographic data for potential and past viewers.
________ is distinguished from the other generational cohorts in that the group’s oldest members are now collecting Social Security.Baby Boomers
Marketers wanting to use social media to reach consumers should understand that people in the _______ group were born into a world that was already full of electronic gadgets and digital technologies such as the Internet and social networks.Generation Z
The first “latchkey” children belong to which generational cohort?Generation X
According to your text, the wealthiest 1 percent of the population control approximately what percentage of Americans’ total net worth?34.6 percent
ABC Company knew that its customers were interested in environmentally friendly business practices, so it began marking all of its products as environmentally friendly because they were made with all-natural ingredients, even though ABC’s plant was one of the worst polluters in town. The term for this practice isgreenwashing.
When considering income as a demographic variable affecting marketing efforts, marketers need to recognize that A. everyone is equal.income in the United States has become more unevenly distributed.
Astute marketers recognize that the increasing disparity of income between upper- and lower-income groupscreates opportunities to provide value to each group.
Population estimates show that by the year 2050, nearly 30 percent of the population in the United States will come from which group?Hispanics
For some products, marketers can combine education level with other data like occupation and income to obtainaccurate predictions of purchase behavior.
Marketers know that, compared to high school graduates who are working full time, college studentsspend their disposable dollars differently.
Which of the following is true regarding modern gender roles?Gender roles have been blurred in the past several years.
The results of the 2010 census suggest what about the 42 million African American U.S. households?They are more affluent and suburban.
Marketers in the United States are paying increasing attention to ethnic groups becauseapproximately 80 percent of all population growth in the next 20 years is expected to come from minority groups.
Marketers are more likely to find higher concentrations of foreign-born Americans and recent immigrants inNew York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Chicago.
Though Asian Americans comprise only about 5.6 percent of the U.S. population, they representthe fastest-growing minority population.
Strategic efforts to supply consumers with environmentally friendly merchandise are calledgreen marketing.
By offering environmentally responsible products, green marketersadd value that other products do not have.
Many American consumers are purchasing hybrid automobiles even though they are more expensive than conventional compact cars. These consumersvalue contributing to a greener environment.
Every time a consumer surfs the web and clicks on a site, online marketers can place _____ on that user’s computer, showing them where the user starts, proceeds, and ends the online encounter—as well as what the user buys and doesn’t buy.cookies
What retailer, in 2013, suffered a massive security breach that allowed hackers to steal credit and debit card information for millions of customers?Target
What technological advancement enables a firm to track an item from the moment it was manufactured, through the distribution system, to the retail store, and into the hands of the final consumer?RFID tags
An advance in technology called RFID makes it easier for manufacturers, distributors, and retailers to track items through production, distribution, and sales. This advance helps the firmmeet inventory needs.
When marketers monitor the economic situation affecting their target markets, they are likely to monitor changes in all of the following exceptage.
If the inflation rate in Mexico was twice the rate in the United States, but the Mexican monetary authorities kept the peso-dollar exchange rate almost constant, which of the following would be true?Mexican products would be more expensive, while U.S.-made products would become comparatively less expensive.
Laws that prohibit the formation of monopolies or alliances that would damage a competitive marketplace benefit consumers throughincreased choices.
Which of the following groups has never lived without easy access to the Internet and other digital technologies?Generation Z
Which of these is a macroenvironmental factor?culture
When Kimberly-Clark introduced rolls of toilet paper without the cardboard core, what social trend did this product respond to?green marketing
If McDonald’s wanted to change its marketing strategy in response to the social trends outlined in the text, it might consider all of the following ideas
except
creating an advertising campaign targeting elementary schoolchildren.
Suppose that you are the vice president of marketing for Target, the large retail store chain. You want to keep your website and in-store services current with technological advances. You might consider experimenting with what is most likely the next expected development in mobile technology, which iswireless payments from mobile devices.
Some companies have been accused of taking advantage of the current social trend of green marketing, positioning their products as environmentally friendly when this may not actually be the case. This is calledgreenwashing.
Part of the social trend toward health and wellness is a concern about the increasing degree of obesity in the United States. Related to this, the text notes the increasing popularity ofyoga.
The political/regulatory environment comprises political parties, governmental organizations, andlegislation and laws.
Christy, a marketing executive who was born in 1955, advocated that her company focus on a print campaign for its new line of lipsticks rather than spending money on online ads. This point of view may be attributed to the fact that she is a member of which generational cohort?Baby Boomer
Which generation’s members are also known as Millennials?Gen Y
The poorest 10 percent of the U.S. population earned less than _______ per week in 2014.$412
Which statement about the changing ethnicity in the United States is true?African American U.S. households are more affluent than previous studies suggested.
According to the text, 14 cable companies agreed to provide low-cost Internet access to impoverished families for all of the following reasons exceptincreased income from a larger number of subscribers.
The government has enacted laws that promote both fair trade and competition by prohibiting the formation of monopolies or alliances that would damage a competitive marketplace, fostering fair pricing practices for all suppliers and consumers. These actions are part of the ________ environment of business.political/regulatory
Which of the following specifically prohibits monopolies?Sherman Antitrust Act
What is most likely to happen when inflation increases?Consumers buy lower-priced foods.
________ is the cost to the customers or the fee the bank charges those customers for borrowing money.Interest
In the summer of 2002 the euro was valued at slightly less than US$1. By 2008, it had risen to an all-time high of $1.60, but in early 2016, the euro and the dollar were nearly equivalent. This change in value is calledforeign currency fluctuations.
When Diana went to college, tuition was $650 per semester. Now that same college charges $6,500 per semester. This number reflects a persistent increase in price known asinflation.
From a firm’s perspective, the biggest advantage of RFID isit enables the firm to track an item from the moment it was manufactured.
Which of the following is an example of greenwashing?A company donates money to a school reading project so it can advertise itself as environmentally friendly.
Nearly what percentage of U.S. adults now recycle their soda bottles and newspapers?50 percent
Which of the following is a social trend listed in the text?health and wellness
Which ethnic group in the United States tends to earn more, have more schooling, and be more likely to be professionally employed or own a business?Asian American
Which ethnic group tends to be not only more affluent and suburban than previously thought, but also younger, with 47 percent between the ages of 18 and 49 years?African American
A generational cohort is a group of peoplewho are of the same generation.

BUS 346 Ch. 4 (ch. 5 for Davis)

When senior citizens or recent immigrants are pressured to take out loans they cannot pay back (often containing high fees, hidden costs, and higher rates of interest), these are referred to as:Predatory Loans
By paying close attention to customer needs and continuously monitoring the environment in which it operates, a good marketer can:Identify potential opportunities
As a retail clothing store manager, Randy frequently asks his staff what customers are saying and what they are asking for. He also attends the quarterly clothing show at the regional merchandise mart. Randy’s efforts will likely help him to:Identify potential opportunities
The immediate factors affecting consumers include the actions of the:Company
Company’s competitors
Company’s corporate partners
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
The centerpiece of the Marketing Environment Analysis Framework is:Consumers
A firm’s macro-environment includes all of the following EXCEPT:Competition
–(it’s part of the immediate environ.)
The center of all marketing efforts is:The consumer
As director of a small art gallery, one of Frederica’s major concerns is the preferences of the people who buy her artists’ work. Frederica recognizes that the center of her marketing efforts is:Her target customers
One of the goals of value-based marketing is:To offer greater value than competitors offer
Ryan knows that one of the goals of value-based marketing is to provide greater value to consumers than competitors offer. To accomplish this goal, Ryan’s firm must look at everything it does…From a customer’s point of view
Yvonne knows her firm must look at everything they do from a consumer’s point of view. One major difficulty is that a consumer’s ___________________________ change(s) over time.Needs, wants, and abilities to purchase
Key traits of Generation Y:This generation puts a strong emphasis on work and life balance and are experts at using various media forms
When an office supply store offers self-check-out, extended hours at its stores, and online shopping with next day delivery, it is trying to address what type of concern?Time-Poor Society
Time Poor Society=Consumers take short cuts to maximize their time
When you register your telephone number with the Do Not Call Registry you are responding to a need for:Privacy
In the immediate environment, a key factor that affects the consumer is:The firm itself
Successful firms focus their efforts on satisfying customer needs that:Match their core competencies
The Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is known for top-quality medical care. For decades, even presidents and dictators from around the world flew to the Mayo Clinic to utilize its services. The Mayo Clinic used its reputation to create additional medical facilities in Jacksonville, Florida and elsewhere. This is an example of a firm focusing its efforts on satisfying customer needs that:Match its core competencies
When evaluating competitors, marketers need to assess competitors’:Weaknesses
Strengths
Likely reactions to marketer’s activities
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Yuri is considering a new promotional campaign in which he will compare his products to those of his competitors. Before initiating the promotional campaign, Yuri will likely assess his competitors’ strengths, weaknesses, and:`Likely reactions to Yuri’s marketing acitvities
Corporate Partners=Firms that provide materials, transportation, advertising, accounting and other goods and services, helping a firm create value for its customers– work with the firm to provide goods and services
The difference between a firm’s immediate marketing environment and its macro-environment is that the macro-environment is:external
Culture=The shared meanings, beliefs, morals, values, and customs of a group of people
Political candidates are notorious for appealing to the different beliefs and values of groups of potential voters in different regions of the country. These politicians are appealing to differences in:Regional culture
Insight Guides, a line of travel books, provide travelers with background information about the peoples’ beliefs, values, and customs. Insight Guides educate travelers about a country’s:Culture
When studying culture, the challenge for marketers is to determine whether culture:can help to identify a particular group that might be interested in the marketer’s products
Marketers have learned that culture influences ________ consumers buy.What
Where
When
How
Why
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Late in the day on September 11, 2001, the day of the World Trade Center attacks, Americans purchased all the American flags Wal-Mart stores had available, nationwide. These purchases were indicative of:Country culture
The United States has often been called the “melting pot” society, integrating people from many different cultures into the social fabric of the country. The challenge for marketers is to determine whether a group’s culture:Can be used as a relative identifier for a particular target group
Identifiable elements of a country’s culture include:Dress
Symbols
Ceremonies
Language differences
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
When considering the use of a radio commercial in England that was designed for U.S. markets, a marketer would likely need to consider which of the following aspects of culture that might be different between the two countries?Language
In New England foot-long sandwiches are called “grinders” while in many other parts of the country they are called “subs.” This is an example of the impact of:Regional culture
The shift of population from the “Rust Belt” in the North to the “Sun Belt” in the South and Southwest will likely:Reduce regional culture differences
Typical demographic data include:Gender
Income
Race
Geographic Region
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
When marketers look at advertising media they often begin with viewer or listener profiles such as, age, income, gender, and race. They then compare the media profile with their target audience. These marketers are using _____________ to see if the media “fits” with their advertising agenda.Demographics
Generational cohorts are groups of people of the same generation who have similar ___________________ because they have shared experiences and are in the same stage of life.Purchase behavior
Generational cohorts are groups of people of the same generation who have similar purchase behavior because they have:Shared experiences and are in the same stage of life
Viewers of the baseball World Series are likely to see ads for beer and cars, and viewers of the Academy Awards broadcast (the “Oscars”) are likely to see ads for clothing and hair care products, due to:demographic data indicating that Monday Night Football attracts male viewers and the Academy Awards attracts female viewers
Compared to other groups, the _______________ generational cohort is more likely to complain, need special attention, and take time browsing before making a purchase decision.Seniors
The ______________ generational cohort is likely to spend money on travel, second homes, luxury cars, and investments. They are typically loyal and willing to spend but are extremely qualitySeniors
Hillary always looks for the “Made in U.S.A” label, prefers easily recognized brand names but not always designer labels, and wants value, quality, and classic styles. Hillary is most likely to be part of the ________ generational cohort.Seniors
From a marketing perspective, what separates ______________ from the generation before them is that they are individualistic, value leisure time as a high priority, and are trying to maintain their youth.Baby boomers
Marketers selling to the _________________ generational cohort need to recognize that these consumers are not too interested in shopping, are cynical, and are less likely to believe advertising claims than the generation(s) before them.Generation X
Baby Boomers popularized personal fitness equipment, but as they age, they are becoming interested in products that address other areas of concern. Which of the following is NOT one of these potential interests?New music that is far less energetic than rock and roll
Julie is an experienced shopper. She has been doing the family’s weekly shopping since she was twelve. She is not very interested in status items, and questions advertising claims. Julie is most likely to be in the __________________ generational cohortGeneration X
The _________________ generational cohort is characterized by the question, “Why shop at Neiman Marcus when Kohl’s and Target are just as good, cheaper, and more convenient?”Generation X
Characteristics of Generation XSkeptical consumers
Emphasis on value over name brands
Roddy walks away from salespeople who give him the “hard sell.” He rarely watches television and spends more time on the Internet. Roddy is most likely to be a member of the ___________________ generational cohort.Generation Y
“Tweens” are part of which generational cohort?Generation Y
When considering income as a demographic variable affecting marketing efforts, marketers need to recognize thatIncome in the US has become more unevenly distributed
Marketers to _______________ income groups attempt to create value by offering one-of-a-kind products and exclusive services.Upper
Astute marketers recognize that the increasing disparity of income between upper and lower-income groups:Creates opportunity to provide value to each group
Since the late 1970s, most American families have seen their income growth stagnate, with income rising only slightly more than inflation. This has changed many Americans consumers’ concept of:Value
For some products, marketers can combine education level with other data like occupation and income to obtain:Useful predictions of purchase behavior
Marketers know that, compared to high school graduates who are working full-time, college students:Will spend their disposable income differently
Gender roles:Have been blurred in the past several years
Manufacturers of products like cars, appliances, and computers need to recognize that women:Make many purchases of these products
Marketers should not assume that they can target all Asian consumers in the United States with one strategy because:They speak different languages and come from different cultures
Marketers in the United States are paying increasing attention to ethnic groups because:approximately 80 percent of all population growth in the next 20 years is expected to come from minority groups
Marketers are more likely to find higher concentrations of foreign-born Americans and recent immigrants in:New York, LA, and Chicago
Though Asian Americans comprise only 3 percent of the U.S. population, they represent:The fastest-growing minority population
Strategic efforts to supply consumers with environmentally friendly merchandise are called:Green marketing
Compared to consumers in the United States, Europeans are:More green-consumer consumers
By offering environmentally responsible products, green marketers:add value that other products do not have
Many American consumers are purchasing hybrid automobiles even though they are more expensive and sometimes less fuel efficient when compared to compact conventional autos. These consumers:Value contributing to a greener environment
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission created the Do Not Call Registry to curb problems with unwanted telephone solicitations. Which of the following was
NOT one of the results?
Honest telemarketers found it easier to reach out to customers
Recently, Jason, one of the few Americans who has not registered with the Do Not Call Registry, received a call from a marketer suggesting Jason needed additional insurance since he had just become a father and changed jobs. Jason was shocked and very concerned about:His lack of privacy
The many demands on consumers today have made it more difficult for marketers to:Grab consumers’ attention
The reality that marketers face consumers who are “time poor” is illustrated by the fact that:-Kids and parents are busier than ever
-Consumers have many more choices about how to spend their limited leisure hours
-Consumers compensate for less leisure time by multitasking
-Consumers are working more hours and have fewer leisure time hours
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
One of the problems for marketing communications to today’s time-poor society is consumers have ___________ as an alternative to television or radio.DVDs
MP3 players
Cell phones
The Internet
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Because Americans are working longer hours without increases in real, disposable income, and are utilizing an army of communication devices to keep up with the demands in their personal and work lives, retailers are:Making their products available where and whenever customers want them
Karen is a typical time-poor American consumer. She works 40+ hours per week, tries to keep up with her children’s educational and recreational schedules, and often finds herself up late at night doing laundry while responding to e-mail messages and watching her few favorite shows recorded on Tivo. In response to the many American consumers whose lives are like Karen’s, marketers are shifting advertising expenditures to:Billboards
Movie screens
Buses/subways
Internet ads
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
David travels a great deal in the course of his business. He has noticed ads in many new places, including fortune cookies, baggage claim conveyor belts, on the sides of buses, etc. Marketers would like to reach David, and are responding to concerns about:The time-poor society
Gretchen has a job that requires working late several nights a week. This puts a lot of strain on her to find time to shop and prepare meals for her family. Grocery stores recognize the importance of consumers like Gretchen and have responded in all of the following ways except:Advertising their products heavily on daily television
Recent advances in technology allow manufacturers, distributors, and retailers to track production, distribution, and sales. These advances help the firm to:Meet inventory needs
When marketers monitor the economic situation affecting their target markets, they are likely to monitor changes in all of the following EXCEPT:Age
In the early 1990s, the inflation rate in Mexico was twice the rate in the United States, but the Mexican monetary authorities kept the peso/dollar exchange rate almost constant. For Mexican consumers:Mexican products became more expensive while U.S.-made products became comparatively less expensive
Every winter, resort managers in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina check the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Canadian dollar. In recent years, the exchange has changed from approximately $0.65 Canadian dollars per U.S. dollar, to approximately equal value of both currencies (i.e., $1 Canadian equals $1 US). These resort managers should expect:More Canadian visitors
Which of the following markets is likely to be the MOST sensitive to changes in long-term interest rates?Housing
Laws that prohibit the formation of monopolies or alliances that would damage a competitive marketplace benefit consumers through:Increased choices
The ______________ Act created the FDAFederal Food and Drug
The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003:Created penalties for “junk” e-mail
Which of the following groups has never lived without easy access to cell phones or the Internet?Tweens
Laura finds that she spends very little time face to face with her family and friends. Most of her communication is done through text messages on her mobile/cell phone and Facebook. Laura probably is part of which generational cohort?Generation Y
Marcus does not make any impulse purchases and tends to purchase high-quality items from brands known for providing quality products. Marcus has plenty of time to research and identify the best product to buy. Which generational cohort does Marcus belongs to?Seniors
Which of these is a macro-environmental factor?Cultural factors
Kimberly-Clark recently introduced rolls of toilet paper without the cardboard core. What social trend does this product respond to?Green marketing
Which is not a social trend listed in the text?Technological advances
Lipstick effect=Treating oneself to a small luxury, like lipstick, and forgoing a larger luxury such as a luxury vacation
Which is an example of greenwashing?A company donates money to a school reading project so it can advertise itself as environmentally friendly