ch12, 13, 14 quiz

minor issues such as music preference or style of dressWhen adolescents and their parents disagree, it is usually regarding
identity-versus-identity-confusion and intimacy-versus-isolation stagesAccording to Erikson, adolescents’ reliance on peers to help them define their identities and learn to form relationships is the link between the
3%What is the percentage of teenagers who experience major depression, in which their psychological disorder is such that the depression is severe and lingers for a long time?
academic achievementSocietal messages suggest that which of the following can act as a roadblock to a female’s social success?
generation gapA divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and worldviews is known as
controversialIf an adolescent student is liked by some and disliked by others, that adolescent is considered
crisis or commitmentPsychologist James Marcia suggests that adolescent identity can be seen in terms of two characteristics, which are
solitary sexual self-stimulationThe term masturbation refers to
the fact that socialized delinquents will live a life of crime into adulthood while undersocialized delinquents are rehabilitatedDifferences between undersocialized delinquents and socialized delinquents include all of the following except
FilipinoWhich of the following adolescent groups tends to feel a greater sense of respect and obligation toward their families?
a psychological investment in a course of action or an ideologyAccording to James Marcia’s definition, commitment is
crowdsLarger groups that are composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another are called
neglectedBrandy is an overweight 15-year-old girl who is neither liked nor disliked by others at her school. Rather, Brandy gets no attention from her classmates at all, and she feels as though she might as well be invisible. Brandy would be considered
Sub-Saharan AfricaSocial norms oppose premarital sex for women in all of these areas EXCEPT
neglectedChildren and adolescents who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions are called
autonomy; egalitarianBecause of the adolescent’s development of _________, the balance of power in the relationship between parents and adolescent becomes more _______ toward the end of adolescence
americanWhich of the following adolescents is the most likely to develop a degree of autonomy at an early stage of adolescence?
rejectedChildren and adolescents who are uniformly disliked are called
Adolescents’ desire for autonomy makes parents and other adult family members, in general, inadequate and invalid sources for informationWhat is the likely reason why adolescents refer to their peers rather than their parents for social comparison?
divorce or breakup of the nuclear familyAll of the following are considered important influences in whether or not an adolescent suffers with major depression except
low cognitive developmentWhich of the following does NOT contribute to the rising number of adolescent suicides?
suicideWarren is a 16-year-old male who recently started to give away important possessions, stopped eating, and demonstrated general depression by being lethargic and uncommunicative. Warren may be demonstrating a warning sign of
cliquesGroups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called
permissiveness with affectionAccording to current norms, if sexual intercourse occurs within the context of a long-term, committed, or loving relationship, it is called
sexual orientationWhat term relates to the object of one’s sexual interest?
definitions of and rationales for appropriate vs. inappropriate conductAccording to psychologist Judith Smetana, what is the most likely reason for more conflict between adolescents and their parents in the earlier stage of adolescence compared to the later stage of adolescence?
identity diffusionAccording to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but never commit to one or never even consider identity options in any conscious way is called
constant wearing of black or dark clothingWhich of the following is NOT an alarm or warning sign of adolescent suicide?
develop awareness of uniqueness of self and knowledge of rolesIn Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development, which of the following is the positive outcome of the fifth stage, called identity-versus-identity-confusion stage?
social comparisonWhen an adolescent provides another adolescent with opportunities to compare and evaluate opinions, abilities, and physical changes, this is called
The census represents a significant increase in the number of individuals who think of themselves as belonging to more than one raceWhen considering the results of the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Censuses, what is one outstanding feature present in the data?
hormonal imbalance in femalesAll of the following are likely causes of major depression in adolescent females except
onset of puberty, while at the same time societal pressures indicate it is appropriate for romantic involvement to beginWhat developments lead to the change in the way adolescents view the opposite sex?
moratoriumAccording to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who may have explored various identity alternatives to some degree, but have not yet committed themselves, is called
transgenderedWhen a person pursues sexual reassignment surgery because they feel as though they were born with the wrong physical sex (i.e., trapped in the wrong body), this is called being
70%The national dropout rate for African American college students is approximately
senescenceThe natural physical decline brought about by aging is called
postformal thought; formal operationsResearcher Gisela Labouvie-Vief promoted _________, and Piaget believed in ________.
hardinessA personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness is known as
gender stereotypesDifferences in gender distribution and attrition rates across subject areas reflect which of the following?
componential intelligenceTraditional intelligence tests, such as those used in psychoeducational evaluations in schools, usually focus on which of Sternberg’s aspects of intelligence?
reintegrationAccording to Schaie, what is the mission of people in late adulthood?
acute stressorTheo returned home from vacationing in Europe. While he was flying home, his father died after suffering a heart attack. When told of his father’s death, Theo suffered from symptoms similar to a panic attack. Which of the following terms provides the best description of the immediate effect of Theo’s reaction to his father’s death?
achieving stageAccording to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions is called
69%What percent of white high school graduates enter college?
40%What percent of students entering college finish four years later with a degree?
componential intelligenceWhen a person uses information he/she has been taught (e.g., choose formulas and problem-solving strategies) to solve problems in a rational way, Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating
how prior experiences are used in problem solving, which involves the ability to cope with new situationsIn Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the experiential aspect of intelligence deals with
are particularly susceptible to difficulties during their first year of collegeRecent research indicates that first generation college students
achievementAccording to Schaie, what is the mission of young adulthood?
problem-focused copingAllison is having a great deal of difficulty in her statistics class. She goes to her teacher to discuss ways in which she can improve her skills, or even drop the class if necessary. Allison is demonstrating
achieving stageSchaie believed that when young adults apply their intelligence to attain long-term goals and confront and resolve major issues such as what job to take and whom to marry, they are using an operation in the
dualistic thinkingAccording to research by psychologist William Perry, students entering Harvard University tended to have a view of the world where they reasoned that something was good or bad, people were good or bad, and others were for them or against them. He called this
hardinessAshley and her brother, Tim, react to stressful family situations entirely differently. Ashley is easily frustrated and tends to look at the negative side when things go wrong, while Tim has always been a person who enjoys challenges and feels capable of responding effectively no matter what the situation. Tim is demonstrating
executive stageAccording to Schaie, the stage in which people in middle adulthood may become involved in town government, service clubs, charitable groups, unions and organizations, where they have a larger purpose in society and can look beyond their individual/family situations is called
they never learn to reduce their caloric intake as they ageMany people who have normal weight for their height during young adulthood put on weight as they age because
contextual intelligenceAccording to the text, which of the following of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence has come to be called “practical intelligence”?
emotion-focused copingJayne is having difficulty finding adequate, affordable daycare for her child while she is at work. Instead of focusing on the negative, she looks at the bright side and realizes that at least she has a good job in a tight economy. Jayne is utilizing
men have more opportunities to earn money when they graduate from high schoolWhich of the following would be considered a reasonable answer as to why there is a gender gap in college attendance?
psychoneuroimmunologyWhat is the name for the new field of study that researches the relationship among the brain, immune system, and psychological factors with regard to stress-related events?
secondary appraisalIf a student assesses the situation to determine how much time he/she has available to devote to studying for an upcoming exam, this is an example of
legislation to enact universal health care benefitsUsing Schaie’s stages of adult development, which of the following is an issue that a senior citizen is most likely to be focused on and interested in?
responsible stageAccording to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the stage where the major concerns of middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations is called
physical and psychological factorsHow well people cope with stress is an interplay between
acquisitionAccording to Schaie, what is the mission of childhood and adolescence?
disabilityThe term for a condition that substantially limits a major life activity such as walking or vision is a(n)
undereducated and underemployedStatistics suggest that disabled people are generally
defensive copingWhen a person attempts coping that involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation, this is called
experiential intelligenceWhen a person solves problems by utilizing his/her prior experience, as well as insight and coping ability/skills for new situations, Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating
adopting a new babyWhich of the following is most likely to lead to the greatest increase in stress?
emotional intelligenceWhat type of intelligence allows some people to acquire the ability to relate to others, understand what others are experiencing, and respond to needs of others?
the availability and use of effective contraceptivesWhat is the most likely reason for the dramatic decrease in the number of children in the average American family?
ChinaIn what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?
homogamyIn Jamar’s culture, the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion is referred to as which of the following?
Erikson’s emphasis on examining the continued growth and development of the personality throughout the lifespanWhile Erikson’s intimacy-versus-isolation stage approach has been influential, some aspects of his theory have come under scrutiny by today’s developmentalists in all of the following areas EXCEPT
ItalyAccording to research reported in the text, which country has the least divorce?
statusThe evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group or society is called
50%In what percentage of households in the U.S. do women earn as much as their husbands?
artisticAccording to John Holland’s personality type theory, a person who would have an interest in acting, poetry, or painting would probably be described as
consummate loveAccording to Robert Sternberg, when two people share a loving, sexually vibrant, long-term relationship, this is called
realisticAccording to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, and physically strong, but have mediocre social skills are best described as
marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both partiesAll of the following are reasons why young adults choose to marry EXCEPT
developing close, intimate relationships with othersAccording to Erikson, the focus of a person’s early 30s is
the process of choosing a particular social clockPsychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is
55Women today make up ____% of the U.S. labor force
intimacy-versus-isolation stageAccording to Erikson, the period of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others is called
romantic loveAccording to Robert Sternberg, when two people are happily dating one another but not making future plans, this is called
90%What percentage of people eventually marry?
he fulfills obligations to his parentsAccording to psychologist George Vaillant’s longitudinal research study of male Harvard graduates, all of the following usually occur when a man is in his late 20s and early 30s except
the process of choosing a particular social clockPsychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is
9 out of 10When polled, _____________ 18- to 29-year-olds rate a happy marriage as an important ingredient to a good life
communalOccupations that are associated with relationships are called
decision/commitmentAccording to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is present.
to get financial gain from governmental benefits programs such as tax breaks and welfareAll of the following are reasons why young adults choose to have children EXCEPT
empty loveJerome and Alice have been married for 15 years, and their marriage is strained with bickering and unhappiness. Still, they are not considering a divorce because they have an 8-year-old son whom they both love deeply. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship
empty loveAccording to Robert Sternberg, when two people are living in an arranged marriage or a couple has decided to stay together “for the sake of the children,” this is called
evolutionary factorsWhich of the following is an explanation for cross-cultural similarities and gender differences?
passion and decision/commitmentAccording to Robert Sternberg, fatuous love develops when _________ is (are) present
social clockThe culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers is called
companionate loveAccording to Robert Sternberg, when two people enjoy each other’s company and their relationship but no longer feel much sexual interest for the other, it is called
passionAccording to Robert Sternberg, infatuated love develops when only _________ is present
artisticAccording to John Holland’s personality type theory, a person who would have an interest in acting, poetry, or painting would probably be described as
seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationshipsResearch suggests that most gay and lesbian couples
extrinsic motivationBernice is a go-getter at her sales job because she likes the finer things of life like sports cars, jewelry, and expensive vacations. Bernice is most likely motivated by
marriage gradientJorge has been taught to marry a woman who is younger, smaller, and lower in status. This is referred to as the
the process of choosing a particular social clockPsychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is
romantic loveDarnell and Denise have been happily dating for months; however, they do not feel compelled to make a long-term commitment yet. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship
decline in the number of couples getting marriedFor the past three decades, there has been a significant
social clockThe culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers is called
fatuous loveMark and Angela met one night at a local bar, and after dating for two weeks they decided to move in together, despite barely knowing each other. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship
extrinsic motivationWhat type of motivation drives people to obtain tangible rewards such as money and prestige?
30-34Which of the following age groups of women giving birth have increased over earlier decades?
intimacyAccording to Robert Sternberg, liking develops when only _________ is present
Partners establish early on in the marriage the superior and inferior positions of the partnersWhich of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of a happy marriage?
African American womenIn what culture does the marriage gradient make finding a spouse difficult when the person is well educated?
the effort to exude confidence and independenceAccording to Erikson, when a person is in his/her 30s, intimacy is related to all of the following EXCEPT
realistic periodAccording to Ginzberg’s theory, the third stage, which occurs in early adulthood when people begin to explore specific career options, either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession, and then narrow their choices and make a commitment, is called
Civil Solidarity PactsWhat is the legal alternative to marriage in France in which couples receive many of the same legal rights as married couples without a legal lifetime commitment?
6Researcher John Holland created the personality type theory, which contains ____ personality traits
50%What percentage of marriages in the U.S. remain intact?