Chapter 5 A&P
|Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.|
A) Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.
B) Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.
C) Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.
D) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
|D) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.|
|________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires.|
B) Decubitus ulcer
|A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?|
A) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
B) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
C) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum
D) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
|D) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale|
|The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.|
C) external root sheath
|C) external root sheath|
|Acne is a disorder associated with ________.|
A) sweat glands
B) sebaceous glands
C) Meibomian glands
D) ceruminous glands
|B) sebaceous glands|
|The dermis ________.|
A) is an avascular connective tissue layer
B) has two layers
C) lacks sensory corpuscles and glands
D) is where melanocytes are found
|B) has two layers|
|Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?|
A) arrector integument
B) arrector pili
C) levator folliculi
D) arrector folliculi
|B) arrector pili|
|If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?|
|Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure?|
A) Meissner’s corpuscles
B) Pacinian corpuscles
C) free nerve endings
D) Krause’s end bulbs
|A) Meissner’s corpuscles|
|Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?|
A) Pacinian corpuscle
B) Meissner’s corpuscle
C) Ruffini body
D) free nerve ending
|B) Meissner’s corpuscle|
|Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?|
A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
B) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.
C) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.
D) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.
|A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.|
|Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct?|
A) Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions.
B) Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin.
C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
D) Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.
|C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.|
|Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.|
A) the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substances
B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
C) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditions
D) epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir
|B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system|
|The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.|
A) serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed
B) bind the hair root to the dermis
C) cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle
D) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
|D) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation|
|Vernix caseosa is a ________.|
A) substance contributing to acne during adolescence
B) whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
C) coat of fine, downy hair on the heads of balding men
D) cheesy-looking sudoriferous secretion on the skin of newborns
|B) whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands|
|The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.|
|Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.|
A) absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin
B) utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis
D) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
|D) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis|
|The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.|
A) it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock
B) it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock
C) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
D) the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus
|C) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber|
|Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?|
B) Squamous cell carcinoma
C) Basal cell carcinoma
|B) Squamous cell carcinoma|
|Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________.|
A) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
B) are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still function
C) are able to reproduce sporadically as needed
D) are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays
|A) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties|
|Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.|
A) provide the melanocyte with a protective shield against abrasion
B) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
C) maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules
D) maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature
|B) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer|
|The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?|
A) stratum corneum
B) stratum granulosum
C) stratum basale
D) stratum lucidum
|C) stratum basale|
|The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?|
A) cells found in the stratum spinosum
B) macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells
C) keratinocytes, because they are so versatile
D) tactile cells
|B) macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells|
|Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?|
A) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
B) The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick bundles of intermediate filaments.
C) The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it.
D) Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.
|A) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.|
|The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?|
A) goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells
B) monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes
C) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
D) osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells
|C) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells|
|The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?|
A) the reticular layer
B) the subcutaneous layer
C) the hypodermal layer
D) the papillary layer
|A) the reticular layer|
|Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?|
A) The pain is acute due to the large number of Meissner’s corpuscles.
B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
C) The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing “black-and-blue marks.”
D) The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.
|B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.|
|The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:|
A) dermal papillae.
B) hair follicles.
C) ceruminous glands.
D) reticular papillae.
|A) dermal papillae.|
|The design of a person’s epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?|
A) Every human being has the same pattern of ridges.
B) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
C) Because we are constantly shedding epithelial cells, these ridges are changing daily.
D) Identical twins do not have the same pattern of ridges.
|B) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.|
|Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body’s natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?|
A) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin’s color.
B) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.
C) The skin is protected by increasing the number of epidermal dendritic cells, which help to activate the immune system.
D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
|D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.|
|Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison’s disease?|
A) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
B) Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.
C) The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.
D) It is impossible to suggest Addison’s disease from an inspection of a person’s skin.
|A) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.|
|An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________.|
A) squamous epithelial cell
B) phagocytic cell
C) nerve cell
|B) phagocytic cell|
|What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?|
A) sex and hormones
B) age and glandular products
C) the size and number of hair follicles
D) nutrition and hormones
|D) nutrition and hormones|
|Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?|
A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
B) Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue.
C) Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones.
D) Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.
|A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.|
|Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?|
A) sebaceous and merocrine
B) mammary and ceruminous
C) eccrine and apocrine
D) holocrine and mammary
|C) eccrine and apocrine|
|The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.|
A) primarily uric acid
B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
C) fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins
D) metabolic wastes
|B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C|
|Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?|
A) in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis
B) beneath the flexure lines in the body
C) in the axillary and anogenital area
D) in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
|C) in the axillary and anogenital area|
|The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.|
A) by high temperatures
B) when the air temperature drops
C) by hormones, especially androgens
D) as a protective coating when one is swimming
|C) by hormones, especially androgens|
|In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?|
A) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
B) It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.
C) The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.
D) It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.
|A) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.|
|Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?|
A) by measuring urinary output and fluid intake
B) by observing the tissues that are usually moist
C) through blood analysis
D) by using the “rule of nines”
|D) by using the “rule of nines”|
|What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?|
B) catastrophic fluid loss
C) unbearable pain
D) loss of immune function
|B) catastrophic fluid loss|
|Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.|
D) male hormones
|D) male hormones|
|Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.|
A) they grow much slower
B) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
C) the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle
D) hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined length
|B) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months|
|Melanin is a polymer made of tyrosine amino acids. Its two|
forms range in color from reddish yellow to brownish black.
|hair consist of dead keritinezed cells|
|Eccrine glands||merocrine) sweat glands, with a few exceptions, are|
distributed over the entire body surface. Their primary function
is thermoregulation. They are simple coiled tubular glands that
secrete a salt solution containing small amounts of other solutes.
Their ducts usually empty to the skin surface via pores.
|apocrine||which may function as scent glands,|
are found primarily in the axillary and anogenital areas. Their
secretion is similar to eccrine secretion, but it also contains
proteins and fatty substances on which bacteria thrive.
|Sebaceous glands||occur all over the body surface except for the palms and soles. They are simple alveolar glands; their oily|
holocrine secretion is called sebum. Sebaceous gland ducts
usually empty into hair follicles.
|Sebum?||Sebum lubricates the skin and hair, prevents water loss from|
the skin, and acts as a bactericidal agent. Sebaceous glands are
activated (at puberty) and controlled by androgens.