Bio test 3 Chapter 42

In which of the following animals are the blood and the interstitial fluid considered to be the same body fluid?

sparrows
grasshoppers
fishes
jellyfish and cnidarians
dogs

Grasshoppers
The posterior inferior vena cava is indicated by the letter _____. (look at picture on desktop)

A
B
C
D
E

C
Arteries carry blood _____.

away from capillaries
away from the heart and away from the lungs
to the heart and away from the lungs
to the heart only
away from the heart only

away from the heart only
Blood returns to the heart via the _____.

aorta
pulmonary arteries
pulmonary veins
aorta and pulmonary arteries
aorta and pulmonary veins

pulmonary veins
From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium
left atrium
aorta
capillaries of the lungs
posterior vena cava

left atrium
From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium
left atrium
aorta
capillaries of the lungs
posterior vena cava

right atrium
From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium
left atrium
aorta
capillaries of the lungs
posterior vena cava

posterior vena cava
Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.

capillaries of the lungs
capillaries of the abdominal organs
capillaries of the hind limbs
capillaries of the head and forelimbs
capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs

capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs
he _____ has(have) the thinnest walls.

aorta
capillaries
inferior vena cava
pulmonary artery
right ventricle

capillaries
Blood pressure is highest in the _____.

aorta
inferior vena cava
superior vena cava
pulmonary artery
capillaries

aorta
Most gas exchange with blood vessels occurs across the walls of the structure indicated by the letter _____. (look at picture on desktop)

A
B
C
D
E

E
What is the function of a circulatory system?

It is the site of blood cell production.
It acts as a reservoir for the storage of blood.
It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
It exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the outside air.

It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?

Land vertebrates are bigger and require more tubing to reach all areas of the body.
Blood is pumped to the lungs to be oxygenated before being pumped to the rest of the body.
The circuits increase the amount of surface area available for the diffusion of gases and nutrients in the body.
The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.

The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
True or false? The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.

True
False

False
What is the function of the left ventricle?

It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
It pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary circulation.
It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
It receives deoxygenated blood from the lungs.

It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?

During one cardiac cycle, the two ventricles contract first, and then the two atria contract.
Deoxygenated blood flowing through the pulmonary veins is carried to the right atrium.
As the right ventricle contracts, it sends oxygenated blood through the aorta to all tissues of the body.
Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.

Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
Which event occurs first during diastole?

The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.
Blood flows into the relaxed atria while the ventricles contract.
The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.
The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.
Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?

The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.
The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.
The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.

The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
What percentage of individuals in the study group had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL? (Hint: Add the percentages for the relevant bars.)

about 17%
about 35%
about 58%
about 79%

about 58%
What percentage of individuals in the control group had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?

about 5%
about 17%
about 40%
about 58%

about 17%
Based on these two histograms, what conclusion can you draw?

On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene have higher plasma LDL levels than wild-type individuals.
On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene have lower plasma LDL levels than wild-type individuals.
On average, individuals with increased PCSK9 enzyme activity have higher plasma LDL levels than wild-type individuals.
The plasma LDL levels of individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene are about the same as those of wild-type individuals.

On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene have lower plasma LDL levels than wild-type individuals.
How would you predict the risk for cardiovascular disease to compare between the study group and the control group?

It is impossible to tell from the data.
The study group has a lower risk than the control group.
The study group has a higher risk than the control group.
The study group has the same risk as the control group.

The study group has a lower risk than the control group.
What is the best explanation for the fact that the two histograms overlap as much as they do?

Plasma LDL levels are hard to measure precisely, so the histograms show the spread around the true value.
PCSK9 enzyme activity varies widely among individuals with an inactivating mutation in only one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
Many factors in addition to PCSK9 enzyme activity affect plasma LDL levels.
The sample size of the study group is much smaller than the sample size of the control group.

Many factors in addition to PCSK9 enzyme activity affect plasma LDL levels.
Now consider two individuals with a plasma LDL level of 160 mg/dL, one from the study group and one from the control group. What do you predict regarding their relative risk for cardiovascular disease?

The risk of the wild-type individual is lower because wild-type individuals had a lower average LDL level than individuals with an inactivating mutation in one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
It is impossible to tell because the histograms overlap so much.
Their risk is equal because their LDL levels are the same.
The risk of the individual from the study group is lower because individuals with an inactivating mutation in one copy of the PCSK9 gene had a lower average LDL level than wild-type individuals.

Their risk is equal because their LDL levels are the same.
Stroke occurs when _____.

a blood clot dislodges from a vein and moves into the lung, where it blocks a pulmonary artery
a blood clot enters and blocks one of the coronary arteries
the pacemaker of the heart becomes defective, producing an irregular heartbeat
a blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue
the walls of an artery in the leg accumulate deposits and lose their flexibility and elasticity

a blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue
Voice sounds are produced by the _____.

trachea
diaphragm
bronchioles
larynx
lungs

larynx
The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.

lungs
trachea
bronchus
nasal cavity
alveoli

nasal cavity
_____ in carbon dioxide in your red blood cells, which causes _____ in pH, causes your breathing to speed up.

A decrease … a rise
An increase … a rise
A decrease … a drop
An increase … a drop
Actually, it is the rise and fall of oxygen, not carbon dioxide, that controls breathing.

An increase … a drop
Which of the following best describes an artery?

Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
Arteries have thin walls compared with veins.
Arteries carry blood away from capillaries.
Arteries carry oxygenated blood.
Arteries contain valves.

Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
The circulatory systems of bony fishes, rays, and sharks are most similar to _____.

the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber
those of sponges, where gas exchange in all cells occurs directly with the external environment
those of humans, where there are four pumping chambers to drive blood flow
those of birds, with a four-chambered heart

the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber
Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have _____.

a gastrovascular cavity
a closed circulatory system
an open circulatory system
branched tracheae

a closed circulatory system
In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

insects
frogs
annelids
fishes

Frogs
The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the _____.

amphibians
fishes
reptiles
mammals

Fishes
To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n) _____.

hemocoel
two-chambered heart
four-chambered heart
open circulatory system

four-chambered heart
An anthropologist discovers the fossilized heart of an extinct animal. The evidence indicates that the organism’s heart was large, was well-formed, and had four chambers, with no connection between the right and left sides. A reasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the _____.

animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate
animal was most closely related to alligators and crocodiles
animal had evolved from birds
species had little to no need to regulate blood pressure

animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate
In an open circulatory system, blood is _____.

not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
not always confined to blood vessels and is under higher pressure than in closed circulatory systems
always inside of vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
always inside of vessels and is under higher pressure than in closed circulatory systems

not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
Circulatory systems compensate for _____.

the need to cushion animals from trauma
the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances
temperature differences between the lungs and the active tissue
the problem of communication systems involving only the nervous system

the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances
Which statement regarding the mammalian heart is correct?

Blood is pumped from the heart via the atria.
Blood arrives at the heart via the ventricles.
In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs.
Oxygen-loaded blood moves only through the right side of the heart.
When the right atrium contracts, it forces blood into the left atrium.

In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs.
Which statement about human blood vessels is correct?

Arteries carry blood toward the atria of the heart.
Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
Veins transport blood from the heart to the capillaries.
Arteries carry oxygenated blood; veins carry oxygen-poor blood.
The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.

Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta?

diastole of the right ventricle
systole of the left atrium
diastole of the right atrium
systole of the left ventricle

systole of the left ventricle
Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?

left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemic circulation
vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary vein
vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein → left atrium → left ventricle pulmonary circuit

vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary artery
Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans _____.

would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance
would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers
would have a direct effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta
would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions

would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions
The greatest difference in the concentration of respiratory gases is found in which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels?

the pulmonary vein and the aorta
the veins from the right and left legs
the pulmonary artery and the inferior vena cava
the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein

the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein
A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery to the thumb and then back to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through _____.

three capillary beds
one capillary bed
four capillary beds
two capillary beds

two capillary beds
If a molecule of carbon dioxide released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following EXCEPT _____.

the pulmonary vein
the trachea
the right atrium
an alveolus

the pulmonary vein
The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because _____.

the diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate
the systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle
the capillaries have internal valves that slow the flow of blood
the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system

the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system
Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with _____.

blood sugar that is abnormally high
sodium depletion
increased activity of the immune system
dehydration

increased activity of the immune system
What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed?

the area of the blockage becoming abnormally small
an increase in the blood pressure in the capillary bed
more fluid entering the venous capillaries
the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas

the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas
Blood is pumped at high pressures in arteries from the heart to ensure that all parts of the body receive adequate blood flow. Capillary beds, however, would hemorrhage under direct arterial pressures. How does the design of the circulatory network contribute to reducing blood pressure to avoid this scenario?

The total cross-sectional diameter of the arterial circulation increases with progression from artery to arteriole to capillary, leading to a reduced blood pressure.
Fluid loss from the arteries is high enough that pressure drops off significantly by the time blood reaches the capillaries.
Blood flow through the capillaries is essentially frictionless, and this reduces the amount of pressure on their walls.
Capillary beds have the thickest walls of any blood vessel to resist these high pressures.

The total cross-sectional diameter of the arterial circulation increases with progression from artery to arteriole to capillary, leading to a reduced blood pressure.
The smallest airway through which inspired air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the _____.

bronchiole
pharynx
trachea
larynx
bronchus

bronchiole
Which of the following statements comparing respiration in fish and in mammals is correct?

In blood, oxygen is primarily transported by plasma in fish, but by red blood cells in mammals.
A countercurrent exchange mechanism between the respiratory medium and blood flow is seen in mammals but not in fish.
The movement of the respiratory medium in mammals is bidirectional, but in fish it is unidirectional.
The respiratory medium for fish carries more oxygen than the respiratory medium of mammals.

The movement of the respiratory medium in mammals is bidirectional, but in fish it is unidirectional.
Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of _____.

the sudden change from the uterine environment to the air
mutations in the genes involved in lung formation
the overproduction of surfactants
lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant

lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant
Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these muscle cells in arteries has a _____.

lower osmotic pressure
higher PO2
lower pH
greater bicarbonate concentration

higher PO2
Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as _____.

stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla oblongata to speed up or slow breathing
the brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide
the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing
the brain directly measures and monitors oxygen levels and causes breathing changes accordingly

the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing
True or false? The lungs of humans form from the embryonic foregut.

True
False

True
True or false? The pressure inside the human chest cavity is always positive, so the lungs stay relatively inflated even upon exhalation.

True
False

False
Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface between air and blood?

Epithelium.
Capillary.
Diaphragm.
Alveolus.

Alveolus
Which barrier(s) must O2 and CO2 cross to pass between air and blood inside lungs?
Check all that apply.

extracellular fluid
capillary wall
epithelial cells
diaphragm

extracellular fluid
capillary wall
epithelial cells
True or false? The driving force for the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin into tissues is the difference in PCO2 levels between the blood and body tissues.

True
False

False
How is most carbon dioxide transported from tissues to the lungs?

As bicarbonate ions (HCO3−).
As carbon dioxide gas.
As protons (H+).
As carbonic acid.

As bicarbonate ions (HCO3−).
Which of the following statements about the oxygen-hemoglobin interaction is true?

The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the unloading of the oxygen molecules that are already bound.
Each hemoglobin molecule can bind one oxygen molecule.
The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is exponential, which means that hemoglobin can respond quickly to small changes in oxygen demand.
The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.

The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.
Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.

as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
combined with hemoglobin
by the trachea
as hydrogen ions (H+)
dissolved in blood plasma

as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.

acidic
basic
thick
low in oxygen concentration
red

acidic
In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.

as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
combined with hemoglobin
by the trachea
water (H2O)
dissolved in blood plasma

combined with hemoglobin
Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply?

the gills of a fish
the skin of an earthworm
the tracheal system of an insect
the parapodia of a polychaete worm
the lungs of a vertebrate

the tracheal system of an insect
Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the

vena cava.
right atrium.
left ventricle.
right ventricle.
left atrium.

left atrium
Pulse is a direct measure of

stroke volume.
cardiac output.
blood pressure.
heart rate.
breathing rate.

heart rate
When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?

rising O2
falling O2
falling CO2
rising CO2 and falling O2
rising CO2

rising CO2
One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is

the number of heart chambers.
a complete separation of circuits for circulation.
a low blood pressure in the systemic circuit.
the number of circuits for circulation.
the type of gas exchange tissues.

the number of circuits for circulation.
If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following except

the right ventricle.
the right atrium.
the trachea.
an alveolus.
the pulmonary vein.

the pulmonary vein
Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these cells in arteries has a

greater bicarbonate concentration.
lower osmotic pressure.
higher P(CO2).
higher P(O2).
lower pH.

higher P(O2).
Why does the velocity of blood slow greatly as blood flows from arterioles into capillaries?

Because the narrow capillaries offer great resistance to blood flow.
Because capillary beds are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues.
Because capillary beds have a total cross-sectional area much greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arterioles.

Because capillary beds have a total cross-sectional area much greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arterioles.
Which statement about lipoproteins is correct?

High-density lipoproteins are cholesterol transporters in the blood.
High-density lipoproteins are a form of cholesterol considered the “good” type to have in blood plasma.
Low-density lipoproteins are the principal component of atherosclerotic plaques.

High-density lipoproteins are cholesterol transporters in the blood.
Select the correct statement about capillary beds.

Capillary beds are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues.
Capillary beds have a total cross-sectional area much smaller than the total cross-sectional area of major arteries.
Capillary beds join arteries and veins.

Capillary beds are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues.
How are gases transported in insect bodies?

In closed circulatory systems
In tracheal systems
In open circulatory systems

In tracheal systems
Select the correct statement about the three-chambered hearts of amphibians and nonbird reptiles.

The three-chambered heart is inferior to the four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals, limiting the evolutionary success of amphibians and nonbird reptiles.
The three-chambered hearts of amphibians and nonbird reptiles are facultative, allowing variation in blood flow through the heart.
Pulmonary and systemic blood fully mixes in the ventricle of a three-chambered heart.

The three-chambered hearts of amphibians and nonbird reptiles are facultative, allowing variation in blood flow through the heart.
Which of the following codes for proteins in all cells, including cancer cells?

ribosomes
genes
endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondria

genes
In Dr. Wartman’s case, which of the following was true?

Both his DNA and his RNA had mutations and were acting wildly.
Only his DNA had mutations and was acting wildly.
Only his RNA had mutations and was acting wildly.
Neither his DNA nor his RNA had mutations and was acting wildly.

Both his DNA and his RNA had mutations and were acting wildly.
You are a cancer researcher studying the use of flow cytometry on three different forms of thyroid cancer. Which of the following are you using to label the cancer cells?

antibodies
X-rays
amylase
radioactive iodine markers

antibodies
Which of the following is true regarding bone marrow transplants?

Even if the patient and the donor are a match, the patient can still experience side effects.
If the patient and the donor are a match, the patient will not experience side effects.
Relatives cannot be donors for bone marrow transplants due to an increased risk of harmful side effects.
For a successful bone marrow transplant, the patient must donate to her or himself after removal and treatment of her or his own bone marrow.

Even if the patient and the donor are a match, the patient can still experience side effects.
Dr. Wartman received the drug Sutent because the mutation found in his cancer cells matched that of which kind of cancer?

testicular
kidney
pancreatic
lung

Kidney
How does the dissociation curve for fetal hemoglobin compare to that for maternal hemoglobin? (refer to picture in hw in mastering bio)

Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at lower partial pressures of oxygen, but a lower affinity than maternal hemoglobin at higher partial pressures.
Fetal hemoglobin has a lower affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at any partial pressure of oxygen.
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at any partial pressure of oxygen.
Fetal hemoglobin has the same affinity for oxygen as maternal hemoglobin at any partial pressure of oxygen.

Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at any partial pressure of oxygen.
Which hypothesis best explains this difference? (refer to picture in mastering bio)

Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of oxygen from mother to fetus.
Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of carbon dioxide and other wastes from fetus to mother.
Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of oxygen from fetus to mother.
Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the release of oxygen from fetal hemoglobin to the fetal tissues.

Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of oxygen from mother to fetus.
An individual with which of the following appearances would be most likely to have Marfan syndrome?

tall, thin
short, thin
short, stout
tall, stout

tall, thin
Which of the following proteins is defective in someone with Marfan syndrome?

fibrillin-1
T.G.F.-beta
Angiotensin-converting enzyme
3-alpha-HSD

fibrillin-1
A person with which of the following is most likely to be taking losartan?

high blood pressure
arthritis
early-onset dementia
low cholesterol

high blood pressure
Which of the following individuals would likely have the lowest fibrillin-1 levels in their blood?

Someone with a large hole in their aorta.
Someone with a small hole in their aorta.
Someone with a normal aorta.
Someone with a thinning aorta.

someone with a normal aorta
What type of disorder is Marfan syndrome?

autoimmune
genetic
toxin-induced
communicable

genetic