Bio test 3 Chapter 42
|In which of the following animals are the blood and the interstitial fluid considered to be the same body fluid?|
|The posterior inferior vena cava is indicated by the letter _____. (look at picture on desktop)|
|Arteries carry blood _____.|
away from capillaries
|away from the heart only|
|Blood returns to the heart via the _____.|
|From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.|
|From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.|
|From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.|
|posterior vena cava|
|Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.|
capillaries of the lungs
|capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs|
|he _____ has(have) the thinnest walls.|
|Blood pressure is highest in the _____.|
|Most gas exchange with blood vessels occurs across the walls of the structure indicated by the letter _____. (look at picture on desktop)|
|What is the function of a circulatory system?|
It is the site of blood cell production.
|It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.|
|Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?|
Land vertebrates are bigger and require more tubing to reach all areas of the body.
|The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.|
|True or false? The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.|
|What is the function of the left ventricle?|
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
|It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.|
|Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?|
During one cardiac cycle, the two ventricles contract first, and then the two atria contract.
|Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.|
|Which event occurs first during diastole?|
The atria contract while blood flows into the relaxed ventricles.
|The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.|
|Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?|
The atria and ventricles contract simultaneously.
|The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.|
|What percentage of individuals in the study group had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL? (Hint: Add the percentages for the relevant bars.)|
|What percentage of individuals in the control group had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?|
|Based on these two histograms, what conclusion can you draw?|
On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene have higher plasma LDL levels than wild-type individuals.
|On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in the PCSK9 gene have lower plasma LDL levels than wild-type individuals.|
|How would you predict the risk for cardiovascular disease to compare between the study group and the control group?|
It is impossible to tell from the data.
|The study group has a lower risk than the control group.|
|What is the best explanation for the fact that the two histograms overlap as much as they do?|
Plasma LDL levels are hard to measure precisely, so the histograms show the spread around the true value.
|Many factors in addition to PCSK9 enzyme activity affect plasma LDL levels.|
|Now consider two individuals with a plasma LDL level of 160 mg/dL, one from the study group and one from the control group. What do you predict regarding their relative risk for cardiovascular disease?|
The risk of the wild-type individual is lower because wild-type individuals had a lower average LDL level than individuals with an inactivating mutation in one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
|Their risk is equal because their LDL levels are the same.|
|Stroke occurs when _____.|
a blood clot dislodges from a vein and moves into the lung, where it blocks a pulmonary artery
|a blood clot enters the cerebral circulation, blocking an artery and causing the death of brain tissue|
|Voice sounds are produced by the _____.|
|The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.|
|_____ in carbon dioxide in your red blood cells, which causes _____ in pH, causes your breathing to speed up.|
A decrease … a rise
|An increase … a drop|
|Which of the following best describes an artery?|
Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
|Arteries carry blood away from the heart.|
|The circulatory systems of bony fishes, rays, and sharks are most similar to _____.|
the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber
|the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumping chamber|
|Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have _____.|
a gastrovascular cavity
|a closed circulatory system|
|In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?|
|The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the _____.|
|To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n) _____.|
|An anthropologist discovers the fossilized heart of an extinct animal. The evidence indicates that the organism’s heart was large, was well-formed, and had four chambers, with no connection between the right and left sides. A reasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the _____.|
animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate
|animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate|
|In an open circulatory system, blood is _____.|
not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
|not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems|
|Circulatory systems compensate for _____.|
the need to cushion animals from trauma
|the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances|
|Which statement regarding the mammalian heart is correct?|
Blood is pumped from the heart via the atria.
|In the adult heart, blood in the right chambers of the heart cannot enter the left chambers without passing through the lungs.|
|Which statement about human blood vessels is correct?|
Arteries carry blood toward the atria of the heart.
|Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.|
|Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta?|
diastole of the right ventricle
|systole of the left ventricle|
|Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?|
left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemic circulation
|vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary artery|
|Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans _____.|
would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance
|would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions|
|The greatest difference in the concentration of respiratory gases is found in which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels?|
the pulmonary vein and the aorta
|the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein|
|A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery to the thumb and then back to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through _____.|
three capillary beds
|two capillary beds|
|If a molecule of carbon dioxide released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following EXCEPT _____.|
the pulmonary vein
|the pulmonary vein|
|The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because _____.|
the diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate
|the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system|
|Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with _____.|
blood sugar that is abnormally high
|increased activity of the immune system|
|What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed?|
the area of the blockage becoming abnormally small
|the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas|
|Blood is pumped at high pressures in arteries from the heart to ensure that all parts of the body receive adequate blood flow. Capillary beds, however, would hemorrhage under direct arterial pressures. How does the design of the circulatory network contribute to reducing blood pressure to avoid this scenario?|
The total cross-sectional diameter of the arterial circulation increases with progression from artery to arteriole to capillary, leading to a reduced blood pressure.
|The total cross-sectional diameter of the arterial circulation increases with progression from artery to arteriole to capillary, leading to a reduced blood pressure.|
|The smallest airway through which inspired air passes before gas exchange occurs in the mammalian lungs is the _____.|
|Which of the following statements comparing respiration in fish and in mammals is correct?|
In blood, oxygen is primarily transported by plasma in fish, but by red blood cells in mammals.
|The movement of the respiratory medium in mammals is bidirectional, but in fish it is unidirectional.|
|Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of _____.|
the sudden change from the uterine environment to the air
|lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant|
|Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these muscle cells in arteries has a _____.|
lower osmotic pressure
|Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as _____.|
stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla oblongata to speed up or slow breathing
|the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing|
|True or false? The lungs of humans form from the embryonic foregut.|
|True or false? The pressure inside the human chest cavity is always positive, so the lungs stay relatively inflated even upon exhalation.|
|Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface between air and blood?|
|Which barrier(s) must O2 and CO2 cross to pass between air and blood inside lungs?|
Check all that apply.
|True or false? The driving force for the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin into tissues is the difference in PCO2 levels between the blood and body tissues.|
|How is most carbon dioxide transported from tissues to the lungs?|
As bicarbonate ions (HCO3−).
|As bicarbonate ions (HCO3−).|
|Which of the following statements about the oxygen-hemoglobin interaction is true?|
The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the unloading of the oxygen molecules that are already bound.
|The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.|
|Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.|
as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
|as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)|
|By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.|
|In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.|
as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
|combined with hemoglobin|
|Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply?|
the gills of a fish
|the tracheal system of an insect|
|Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the|
|Pulse is a direct measure of|
|When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?|
|One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is|
the number of heart chambers.
|the number of circuits for circulation.|
|If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following except|
the right ventricle.
|the pulmonary vein|
|Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these cells in arteries has a|
greater bicarbonate concentration.
|Why does the velocity of blood slow greatly as blood flows from arterioles into capillaries?|
Because the narrow capillaries offer great resistance to blood flow.
|Because capillary beds have a total cross-sectional area much greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arterioles.|
|Which statement about lipoproteins is correct?|
High-density lipoproteins are cholesterol transporters in the blood.
|High-density lipoproteins are cholesterol transporters in the blood.|
|Select the correct statement about capillary beds.|
Capillary beds are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues.
|Capillary beds are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues.|
|How are gases transported in insect bodies?|
In closed circulatory systems
|In tracheal systems|
|Select the correct statement about the three-chambered hearts of amphibians and nonbird reptiles.|
The three-chambered heart is inferior to the four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals, limiting the evolutionary success of amphibians and nonbird reptiles.
|The three-chambered hearts of amphibians and nonbird reptiles are facultative, allowing variation in blood flow through the heart.|
|Which of the following codes for proteins in all cells, including cancer cells?|
|In Dr. Wartman’s case, which of the following was true?|
Both his DNA and his RNA had mutations and were acting wildly.
|Both his DNA and his RNA had mutations and were acting wildly.|
|You are a cancer researcher studying the use of flow cytometry on three different forms of thyroid cancer. Which of the following are you using to label the cancer cells?|
|Which of the following is true regarding bone marrow transplants?|
Even if the patient and the donor are a match, the patient can still experience side effects.
|Even if the patient and the donor are a match, the patient can still experience side effects.|
|Dr. Wartman received the drug Sutent because the mutation found in his cancer cells matched that of which kind of cancer?|
|How does the dissociation curve for fetal hemoglobin compare to that for maternal hemoglobin? (refer to picture in hw in mastering bio)|
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at lower partial pressures of oxygen, but a lower affinity than maternal hemoglobin at higher partial pressures.
|Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin at any partial pressure of oxygen.|
|Which hypothesis best explains this difference? (refer to picture in mastering bio)|
Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of oxygen from mother to fetus.
|Fetal hemoglobin’s higher affinity for oxygen helps promote the movement of oxygen from mother to fetus.|
|An individual with which of the following appearances would be most likely to have Marfan syndrome?|
|Which of the following proteins is defective in someone with Marfan syndrome?|
|A person with which of the following is most likely to be taking losartan?|
high blood pressure
|high blood pressure|
|Which of the following individuals would likely have the lowest fibrillin-1 levels in their blood?|
Someone with a large hole in their aorta.
|someone with a normal aorta|
|What type of disorder is Marfan syndrome?|