Biology – Ch. 9-10 Mastering Biology

A sperm and egg are each _________. They fuse during fertilization to produce a _________ cell.haploid; diploid
A gametophyte produces ____________ and a sporophyte produces ____________ .gametes; spores
Which type of cell division is used during the production of spores?meiosis
Which of the following correctly defines alternation of generations?life stages that cycle between haploid and diploid phases
The first stage of the diploid generation is the __________.zygote
In the process of ____, a plant lengthens upward toward sunlightprimary growth
All growth of a flowering plant takes place within specialized tissues called ___.meristems
The growth rings of a tree occur during ____, the thickening of a plant over many growing seasons.secondary growth
____ are plants that grow and produce seeds for many seasons before they die.Perennials
___ are plants that sprout from a seed, grow, flower, and die all in one growing season.annuals
____ are plants that sprout from a seed and grow in their first season, and then produce seeds and fruit and die in the next growing season.biennials
Most fungi are multicellular, and all fungi obtain nutrients by absorption.true
Can you identify the plant group to which each of these organisms belongs?NOT a plant
-charophyte algae

Nonvascular plant
-bryophyte
-moss

Seedless vascular plant
-fern

Gymnosperm
-conifer
-pine tree

Angiosperm
-pear tree
-purple coneflower

The ___ is the tissue system that forms a layer of outer protection for the plant (analogous to human skin).dermal tissue system
The ___ is the tissue system that forms a long-distance transportation system for the plant (analogous to the human circulatory system).vascular tissue system
The ___ is the tissue system that is the bulk of the plant, containing tissues that do not belong to the other two tissue systems.ground tissue system
Water-conducting cells form a tissue called the ___.xylem
Cells that conduct sugars and other nutrients from a tissue called the ___.phloem
The ___ are small pores in the dermal tissue system that allow for gas exchange.stomata
The ___ control the openings of the gas-exchanging pores in the dermal tissue system.guard cells
The ground tissue of a leaf, which is the primary site of photosynthesis, is called ___.mesophyll
What is the order in which the four major groups of plants evolved, from the most ancient to the most recent origin?bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
___ describes the tendency of water molecules to stick to each other.Cohesion
___ describes the process by which water is lost from plants by evaporation.Transpiration
___ describes the tendency of water molecules to stick to the fibers of plant cell walls.adhesion
Drag each plant feature into the appropriate bin depending on whether it is a feature of monocots or eudicots.monocot
-root system is short and spread outflower
-petals in multiples of 3
parallel leaf veins
-one cotyledon seed leaf

eudicot
-branched leaf veins
-root system is deep and narrow
-flower petals in multiples of 4 or 5
-two cotyledon seed leaves

Fungicides are used to treat fungal diseases of plants. However, experts have warned gardeners that application of a fungicide can sometimes kill the plant as well as the fungal disease. Propose an explanation for how this might happen.Fungicides might kill fungi that are part of the plant’s mycorrhizae.
What structure of angiosperms attracts animals as a way to disperse seeds?fruit
The terminal sperm-producing flower part is the _____; if a pollen grain is lucky, it will land on the terminal female part of the flower, the _____.anther … stigma
In flowering plants, the main visible plant body is the _____.diploid sporophyte
What part of a flowering plant develops to form the fruit?Ovary cells develop to form the fruit.
Double fertilization is unique to flowering plants. How does it work?A pollen grain delivers two sperm. One fertilizes the egg, and the other combines with two haploid nuclei to form the triploid endosperm.
What is a seed composed of?an embryo, the endosperm (food supply), and the seed coat
What group of plants provides most of our food?angiosperms
What is the primary component of fungal cell walls?chitin
An ___ is the point on a stem where a leaf attaches.node
How big is the range of soil degradation observed between continents?about 15%
Which continent likely represents the largest absolute land area experiencing degradation?Asia
For which continents is land degradation having the least impact on global grain production?Africa and South America
Suppose you are advising the UN on global soil conservation projects. Limited resources force you to focus all your efforts on only one continent. Based on the information in the graph, which continent would you focus on so as to have the greatest impact on global grain production?Asia
Which continent has the largest proportion of land with more than moderate degradation?Africa
Assume that these categories represent a progression of degradation through time. In other words, if left unchecked, lightly degraded soil progresses into moderately degraded soil and so forth. Which continent poses the greatest concern for future loss of agricultural productivity?Europe
The most important adaptation that differentiates angiosperms from other types of plants is their __________.flowers
You work in plant genetic engineering and wish to develop a tree that will make burls. Which of the following tissues should you focus on?bud
Why are burls so coveted?For their unique patterns
The bark of a tree protects its living layer. What is this layer?cambium
You find someone in Redwood National Park selling burls and fear they were obtained illegally. Which federal agency would be best for you to contact?National Park Service
Which of the following is true?Demand for redwood burls is worldwide.
Which of the following does moss need to remain lush and green?light
You are a botanist and you obtain some moss from the Canadian permafrost. Based on this recent study, what should you do to try to successfully revive your sample?Put it under a light and water it.
As of the writing of this article, which of the following had been revived after being dormant for the longest time?bacterium
A team of scientists finds all of the following frozen from various locations. Which of them is most likely going to be able to be revived using currently available technology?Seed from a flowering plant
The majority of scientists agree that in order to successfully clone a mammoth, which of the following would be needed?Intact mammoth DNA.
In gymnosperms, female cones produce ovules while male cones produce pollenTrue
In what way are plants similar to algae?Both can do photosynthesis.
Scientists contend that humans and modern apes are related. What specifically does that mean?If you traced the ancestry of humans and apes, you would at some point arrive at a shared ancestor that was neither a modern ape nor a human.
About how many years ago did the lineages leading to chimpanzees and modern humans become separated?5 million years
What was the first key hominid trait to appear in the fossil record?bipedalism, as indicated by skeletal structure
What traits were present in early Homo habilis, the first representatives of the genus Homo?bipedalism, moderate brain size, and tool use
Currently, we humans are the only hominid species on Earth. This situation _____.is relatively recent. For most of hominid history there were multiple coexisting hominid species.
One key adaptation of animals was the evolution of a(n) ____, a fluid-filled gap between the outer wall of the body and the outer wall of the digestive system.body cavity
All animals are ___, organisms with cells that are relatively large, complex, and contain membrane-enclosed organelles such as the nucleus.eukaryotes
All animals except sponges have ___, groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function.tissues
All animals eat other organisms in order to gain building materials for the body. This makes them ____, since they obtain necessary energy and chemical building blocks from the environment.heterotrophs
Cnidarians are the only animal phylum to display ____ meaning that their bodies can be divided any way through the center point to yield two even halves.All other adult animals display ____ , meaning that their bodies can only be sliced lengthwise through the midline to produce two even halves.radial symmetry;
bilateral symmetry
The 150-million-year-old Archaeopteryx fossil has birdlike features such as feathered wings, but it also has characteristics that we associate with living reptiles. Which of the following are considered reptilian characteristics of Archaeopteryx?-claws on the ends of each digit in the “hands”
-teeth in the jaws
-long, bony tail
Which discovery ultimately overturned the prevailing perception that all dinosaurs were large, slow, and lumbering?the small theropod dinosaur Deinonychus, which had a large sickle-shaped claw on each of its hind limbs
Which of the following shared characteristics of living birds and theropod dinosaurs provided support to the hypothesis that birds evolved from dinosaurs?-birds and theropods have S-shaped necks
-birds and many theropods have feathers
-birds and theropods have hollow bones that are strong, but light
-birds and many theropods have a wishbone (or furcula)
How did Dr. Jack Horner’s discovery of dinosaur nesting grounds support the hypothesis that birds evolved from a group of dinosaurs?it provided evidence that dinosaurs raised and cared for their young in colonies like many birds
A key characteristic of modern birds is flight powered by feathered wings. Which of the following pieces of evidence support the hypothesis that the first feathers served a purpose other than flight?some feathered theropods were not capable of flight
Which of the following statements about bird evolution are accurate based on the evidence presented?-Feathers may have originally evolved for insulation
-Feathers may have originally evolved for interspecies communication and display.
Why was the discovery of organisms, such as Archaeopteryx, that have a mix of traits usually associated with two different groups considered validation of Darwin’s theory of evolution?the discovery provided evidence that species descend with modification from other species
Which of the following is true?Bats serve as a reservoir for Ebola, but do not themselves get the disease.
You study echolocation in animals. What type of bats would be best for your research?Only microbats.
Which of the following is true?As metabolism increases, free radicals also increase.
It is currently hypothesized that bats do not get cancer for which of the following reasons?Bat DNA has the ability to repair itself after malignant mutations.
What effect does white-nose syndrome have on bats?It increases the amount of energy they burn.
Which of the following features are common to most, or all, animals?-typically diploid
-mulitcellular
-heterotrophic
-ingest food
You are a fisheries biologist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. If upcoming years are like 2015, which of the following are you most likely to find in Puget Sound?pink salmon
Which of the following is true?Salmon depend on both fresh and marine water.
Your community decides to put a dam on a local river. Which of the following is most likely to happen?Water temperature in the river will increase.
Which of the following was initially the most damaging to U.S. salmon populations?overfishing
Which of the following is true?Legally, both wild-caught and hatchery-raised salmon can be eaten.
The animal phyla can be divided into three separate clades based on what character?the symmetry of the body
Which of the following is true?Chimpanzees and bonobos share a common ancestor with humans.
You are a primatologist. Which of the following would be the most unusual for you to observe in the wild?Three female chimpanzees taking food from two male chimpanzees.
Assuming they behave as in the wild, which of the following bonobos would have the highest status in a zoo?An older female.
You are on an ecological tour. Seeing which of the following would lead you to believe that you are seeing a troop of bonobos?An adolescent male with his mother.
In order to save bonobos from extinction, where is it most critical to protect habitat?Democratic Republic of Congo
All animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes. T/F?true
A(n) ___ is an animal that has a backbone in addition to displaying the four features of all chordates.vertebrate
One of the features shared by all chordates is a(n)____, a flexible rod that runs along the top side of the back.notochord
A(n) ___ is an animal that lacks a backbone and may or may not have all of the chordate features.invertebrate
The phylum ___ contains animals that share four specific anatomical features, including a hollow nerve cord and a tail.chordate
A(n) ___ is an example of an animal that is a chordate but not a vertebrate.lancelet
All vertebrates have a(n) ___, an internal system of bones (in your case, 206 bones)endoskeleton
For dinner, you have pasta with tomato sauce and meatballs, with cheese sprinkled on top. Which of these four is most likely to have been produced without bees?pasta
The main functional unit, or super organism, of a honeybee hive is the __________.colony
The continued decline of bees in the United States is most likely due to __________.many factors, including viral, bacterial, and fungal infections and improper use of pesticides
In parts of Asia, many fruit crops are pollinated by hand using feathers. This human method of pollination is used because __________overuse of pesticides has greatly reduced the populations of bees
Which of the following scenarios will most likely produce the most sustainable method of pollinating crops?Include strips of wildflowers within and around an apple orchard.
You are a veterinarian testing for contagious equine metritis. Which of the following do you sample?Blood from female horses.
Who is in charge of making sure contagious equine metritis does not enter the United States?United States Department of Agriculture
If a mare is infected with contagious equine metritis, which of the following will be impacted?her fertility
If trends continue, which of the following will happen in the United States?Occasional outbreaks of contagious equine metritis affecting a small number of horses.
Which of the following would be required to have their horse tested for contagious equine metritis?Anyone importing a horse from Germany
These specialized structures are unique to the cnidariansstinging cells
A group of animals called ____ have several adaptations for living on land but must return to the water to breed.amphibians
A four-limbed, land-dwelling vertebrate is generally known as a(n) ___tetrapod
A(n) ___ is an organism that generates heat within its body; a(n) ___ is an organism that must obtain heat from the environment.endotherm; ectotherm
Adaptations that evolved in the group of animals called the ___ have allowed them to complete their life cycles entirely on landreptiles
The ___, a key adaptation for reptiles, has a waterproof shell that encloses the embryo and its life-support system.amniotic egg
Mammals belong to the same phylum as lancelets. T/F?true
Which of the following traits can be used to differentiate humans from our closest living primate relatives?-extensive tool use
-bipedality (the ability to walk exclusively on two legs)
-large brain size
Louis and Mary Leakey found two different fossil hominid skulls at Olduvai. Which of the following statements about the skulls is true?The second skull represented a species more closely related to modern humans than the first skull’s species.
Which of the following statements supports the conclusion that the common ancestor of modern chimps and modern humans lived around 7 million years ago?Analysis of modern human and modern chimpanzee protein and DNA sequences suggests that their lineages diverged about 7 million years ago.
Which of the following anatomical features of the 3.2-million-year-old Australopithecus fossil known as “Lucy” suggest she was a bipedal hominid?a much shorter hip bone that is broader from front to back and wraps around the side
How do scientists know that the hominid called “Ardi” is about 4.4 million years old?by using radiometric dating techniques on the volcanic deposits found above and below the layer containing Ardi
What did scientists learn from other fossils found in the same sediment layer as Ardi?Ardi lived in a woodland habitat
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding human evolution?-The first humans evolved in Africa.
-In the latest phase of human evolution, there has been a greater reliance on culture.
-The fossil record contains creatures with features that are intermediate between those of modern humans and quadrupedal apes.
Which of the following is human’s closest living relative?Chimpanzees
Which subgroup of mammals raises their young in pouches?Marsupials
Echinoderms use seawater instead of blood in their circulatory systems. T/F?true
A newly-recognized species called an “olinguito” was first announced to the public in 2013. The olinguito is found in high Andean forests, has reddish-orange fur, and is active mostly at night. Females give birth to one baby at a time. Olinguito young are born as full size embryos. The new species appears to be the smallest member of the raccoon family. This newly recognized species is a(n) __________.eutherian

Eutherians are placental mammals that give birth to full size young.

Why doesn’t Dr. Logan feel the bed bug feeding on him?The bed bug injects an anesthetic as it feeds.
What makes bed bugs different than most other blood-feeding parasites?Bed bugs prefer humans over other hosts.
Many blood-feeding parasites carry diseases but bed bugs do not. What is the most logical explanation for this?The infectious agent is inactivated within the gut of the bed bug.
Why do we often get an itchy red bump after being bitten by a bed bug?The proteins injected by the bed bug trigger an inflammatory response in the human body.
Bed bugs probably evolved from bat bugs. Which statement best describes how this likely happened?There were two populations of bat bugs, one feeding on humans, and one on bats. Reproductive isolation, mutation, and natural selection led to speciation.
What does the bed bug illustrate in regards to evolution?Speciation can occur in just a few thousand years.
Some scientists are conducting research on the “saliva” of bed bugs. Which of the following is the most logical medical benefit from this research?Using the anticoagulant to prevent blood clots in humans.
Except for modern ethnic groups in ______, the majority of humans appear to have traces of Neanderthal DNA in their genome.Africa
Research confirms that Neanderthal DNA makes up about ____ of the modern human genome.4%
DNA was isolated from Neanderthal ____ and sequenced so that it could be compared to modern human DNA.bone fragments
Mating is believed to have taken place between modern humans and Neanderthals in ____ about 70,000 years ago.the Middle East
The Neanderthal DNA discovered in Homo sapiens is best explained by ____.gene flow
Out of the 3 worm phyla, ___ have segmented bodies; flatworms and roundworms do not.annelids