Chapter 12 Psychology Correction

. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by _______.c) the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on ______.b) the influences of the social world in which we exist
The main task of the Solomon Asch studies was ____________________.b) judging line sizes
All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT ____________.) openness to differing opinions
. Of the following, a ________ would probably not be viewed as a ‘compliance professionalteacher
Hannah asks Jin to babysit her daughter for five hours each on both Saturday and then Sunday. Once Jin declines, Hannah asks Jin to babysit for four hours on Saturday only and Jin agrees to do it. This example demonstrates the ________ techniquedoor-in-the-face
52. What is a difference between obedience and conformity?In obedience there is a difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who makes the request.
In the Stanley Milgram obedience experiment, the teachers were given a “sample shock” of _______ voltsd) 45
Marco accepts a request to play the piano at his church’s Sunday services even though he is still learning how to play the piano. He plays a well-learned, simple piece. Happily, he performs very well in front of his congregation. Marco’s behavior illustrates facilitation
Kwan really doesn’t feel like riding the stationary bicycle today, but he doesn’t want the people around him to think he is a slacker. If he decides to continue exercising, what concept might explain his actions?social facilitation
On the 72nd hole of the U.S. Open golf tournament, Phil Mickelson misses a one-foot putt that would have won the championship. During an interview afterward, he stated, “I’ve made that putt a thousand times on the practice green. I can’t believe that I missed it!” Based on your knowledge of social psychology, which phenomenon may have contributed to the errant putt?social impairment
During the finals of the National Basketball Association (NBA) LeBron James misses a foul shot to give his team the lead with 10 seconds left in the game. Even though LeBron usually makes those shots during practice, he missed it at a crucial time. Why do you think this might have happened?social impairment
People who exert less effort on a task when working in a group than they do when working individually are engaging in ___________.) social loafing
An individual who exerts less effort when working on a group task if individual contributions will not be evaluated is engaging in what is called loafing
Which of the following terms is associated with social cognition?thinking about others
Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude?Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause.
Your attitudes are most likely to influence specific behaviors when the attitudes are:very specific
Which of the following statements about persuasion is correct?) People who are perceived as honest are more persuasive.
Which of the following qualities would make members of a target audience easier to persuade?younger members
Central route is to peripheral route as ________.careful is to superficial
. Which of the following is the correct definition of cognitive dissonance?a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to the his or her attitude
Which part of the brain has been identified as being particularly active when people experience cognitive dissonance?he left frontal cortex
What is the term for the process of developing our first knowledge about another person?impression formation
Which of the following statements concerning social categorization is correct?it occurs without conscious awareness
. Which term refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a particular group?stereotype
Which of the following descriptions best defines implicit personality theory?the set of assumptions people have about people, their actions, and their personality traits
Attributions are __________________.explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
Which of the following individuals is most likely to make the fundamental attribution error?Mona, a 72-year old Hawaiian woman
The social group viewed as the one a person identifies with is called a (an)
Realistic conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises fromcompetition over scarce resources
Scapegoats are usually the group of people with _________.the least power
According to social identity theory, individuals view their own group favorably so as to ________.think of themselves more favorably
The classic Robber’s Cave study showed that prejudice can be reduced by ________.cooperating to meet a mutually beneficial goal
All of the following are ways to reduce prejudice EXCEPTscapegoating
How does the jigsaw classroom operate?Students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a problem.
We tend to _________ attractive people more than we do less attractive
“Out of sight, out of mind” is a cliché that is consistent with the _____________ rule of interpersonal attraction.proximity
The cliché “familiarity breeds contempt” contradicts which of the rules of interpersonal attraction?proximity
All of the following are Sternberg’s components of love EXCEPTloyalty
Which type of love is defined as having only intimacy and commitment?companionate
Which of the following parts of the brain are related to aggression?both A and B
Which of the following is not one of the three things people do reduce cognitive dissonance?ignore the conflict
Sets of assumptions that people have about how different types of people personality traits and actions are all related to each other are called____implicit personality theories
The self-fulfilling prophecy is a negative outcome ofstereotype vulnerability
The more you see someone, the more likely you are to ___ that personlike
he more you see someone, the more likely you are to _______ that personlike
A person who is very low in self worth is less likely to be affected by the ______
According o sternberg, the emotional and physical arousal a person feels for another is the ____ component of lovePassion
The front page of the newspaper has a story about a man wearing a clerical collar who robbed several people in their homes and escaped. That the victims readily allowed this trustworthy-looking man to enter their home shows the potential disadvantages of relying on:the process of social categorization
Attribution contributes to person perception by:b. providing an explanation for the cause of a person’s behavior.
As you slowly inch your way toward the intersection, you finally see the auto accident that was stalling traffic. As you look at the two drivers standing by their crumpled cars, you think to yourself, “They probably had the accident because they’re careless drivers.” Your thinking reflects which of the following concepts?d. The fundamental attribution error
What has the Pygmalion effect in the classroom demonstrated?b. A negative belief by a teacher about a student or group of students can significantly lower that student’s or group of students’ performance in such a way as to become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
According to the text, the development of multiple self-concepts based on multiple social roles:
The process of comparing ourselves with others to identify our unique characteristics and evaluate our abilities is called:Social comparison
Which of the following is a fairly common attributional bias?the in-group bias
Howard explained the low evaluation he received on his job performance review by saying that his boss was a jerk and had it in for him. Howard appears to be:cognitive dissonace
Jeff strongly believes that endangered species should be protected. After conducting a job search he is offered a job with a company that intends to develop a parcel of land, destroying one of the few remaining habitats of an endangered species of earthworm. Which of the following circumstances would make it more likely that Jeff would behave in accordance with his attitude and refuse the job offer?Jeff knows a great deal about the endangered earthworm species.
Cognitive dissonance occurs when:We use internal, personal attributions, rather than external, situational attributions,
to explain our own behavior
In Milgram’s original obedience experiment, how many of the participants remained obedient to the very end of the experiment, administering the full 450 volts to the learner?
Nadia believes that cocaine is harmful to her health, so she stopped using it. Nadia used which of the following ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?
In groupthink, members of the grouphave an illusion of invulnerability
The group most likely to become a scapegoat is the groupleast social influences