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proposition 13Also known as the “tax revolt”, it was a Californian ballot measure in 1978 that slashed property taxes and forced deep cuts in government services.
boll weevilsTerm for conservative southern Democrats who voted increasingly for Republican issues during the Carter and Reagan administrations.
supply-side economicsAn economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
strategic defense initativePopularly known as “Star Wars,” President Reagan’s SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
sandinistasMembers of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
glasnostA policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
perestroikaA policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
intermediate range nuclear forcesMikhail Gorbachev made an agreement with the United States, the Intermediate Range INF Treaty, to eliminate nuclear warfare
iran-contra affair(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
moral majority“Born-Again” Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force.
black mondayOctober 19, 1987. Date of the largest single-day decline in the Dow Jones Industrial Average until September 2001. The downturn indicated instability in the booming business culture of the 1980s but did not lead to a serious economic recession.
operation desert stormthe United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)
americans with disabilities actPassed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Ronald reagan1981-1989,”Great Communicator” Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or “boll weevils” , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
Margaret thatcherleader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
Mikhail gorbachevHead of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
saddam husseinWas a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
jerry falwellLeader of the Religious Right Fundamentalist Christians, a group that supported Reagan; rallying cry was “family values”, anti-abortion, favored prayer in schools
Sandra day o connorfirst woman supreme court justice. appointed by Reagan
George h w bushrepublican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes even though said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation
boris yeltsinPresident of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
nelson mandelaBorn 1918. 11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid. Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
manuel noriegaLeader of the Panamanian Defense Forces, Noriega supplied information to the CIA during the Bush administration, but was indicted in 1988 for drug and other charges and eventually captured and convicted after a military standoff with U.S. troops in Panama.
Clarence thomasThis man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.