APUSH Chapter 26

Descrive the ffect of westward expansion on Native Americans.Westward expansion limited Native American freedoms. With the new reservation system, Indians lost land and we bunched together in small, unattractive boundaries. Families were separated, and culture was lost through the conversion of Indian-to-white ways.
How was the West “won?”By exterminating- as a deliberate act of state policy -most of the Native American population and stealing their land.
How were the Buffalo reduced from 15 million to less than a thousand?Through the hunting for their furs by the masses from westward expansion.
What did the government do to try to assimilate Native Americans?The gov. used the Dawes Severalty Act, which granted N.A. citizenship if they displayed English-like behavior after 25 years in the country. Also, the Carlisle Indian School effectively and slowly destroyed N.A. culture when the children were taken from their families and taught English culture, instead of learning Indian culture from their parents. The government also outlawed many religious practices native to the N.A., like the ghost dance.
How did the discovery of precious metals affect the American West?It led to the increase in westernized movement, and also spurred a more industrialized society in the west. Gaps between political parties widened, as different parties had different views on the values of these precious metals, and the “American Dream” became more clear, as many people became prosperous from the metals.
How was the culture of the Plains Indians shaped by white people?White settlers took over the Indians’ land and waged war.
Why was cattle ranching so profitable in the 1870’s?Because there was a very high demand for the leather and meat obtained from cattle.
Did the Homestead Act live up to its purpose of giving small farmers a descent life on the plains?It did not, because also 10x as much land that actual small farmers obtained was taken by greedy land-grabbing promoters. While a considerable amount of farmers were able to make successful lives with this cheap land, most of it was obtained through fraud by business-minded people.
What were some milestones in the “closing” of the west?The population of the US had exponentially increased, and many nature-preservation steps were being taken, such as the founding of Yellowstone in 1972.
What effect has the frontier had on the development of the US?The frontier was accountable for the opening of many new opportunities for immigrants to be successful, vast, new areas of land to be filled, and as such, a huge population increase. The frontier, because of its profitability, also promoted industrialization.
Explain the statement, “The amazing mechanization of agriculture in the postwar years was almost as striking as the mechanization of industry.”Historians generally agree that the civil war was the first modern war, meaning the first in which technology and industrial strength played a significant role.
What problems faced farmers in the closing decades of the 19th century?The explosion with the amount of farmers correlated to a drastic increase in the supply of many of the once-cash-crops. With an overabundance of these crops, farmers experienced rapid deflation of their cash crops. As a result, many found themselves in debt and unable to support themselves or their family.
How did nature, government, and business all farm farmers?The good soil of the west was becoming poor, and floods added to the problem of erosion. Beginning in the summer of 1887, a series of droughts forced many people to abandon their farms and towns. Farmers were forced to sell their low priced products in an unprotected world market, while buying high-priced manufactured goods in a tariff-protected home market. Farmers were also controlled by corporations and processors. They were at the mercy of the harvester trusts, the barbed-wire trust, and the fertilizer trust, all of which could control the output and raise prices to high levels. Even though farmers made up 1/2 of the population in 1890, they never successfully organized to restrict production until forced to do so by the federal gov. 50 years later.
How did the Grange attempt to help farmers?The Grange in the late 1800s helped farmers by getting them organized in relation to their crops. They helped the farmers figure out what they needed to grow and when they needed to grow certain things to get the best prices.
What steps did the Farmers’ Alliance believe would help farmers?They operated free mills and gins that small farmers could use. They believed in graduated income taxes, sub-treasures warehouses, and government ownership or railroads.
Why did President Cleveland send in federal troops during the Pullman Strike?The strike was broken because the railroad workers had stopped the trains, harming commerce in the US.
Was William McKinley a strong presidential candidate? Explain.Yes, he was wealthy, which is a plus and when going against Bryan he had more means to get his message across.
“The free-silver election of 1896 was probably the most significant since Lincoln’s victories in 1860 and 1864.” Explain.The outcome was a big victory for large business, big cities, middle-class values, and financial conservatism. They Republican victory of 1896 also started a Republican hold on the White House for 16 consecutive years.
Did McKinley possess the characteristics necessary to be an effective president?Yes, he accepted the commoners beliefs, he related and won.
Reservation SustemThe system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west, beginning in the 1850s and ending with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. Within these reservation, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually. The US government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times.
Battle of Little Big Horn(1876) A particularly violent example of the warfare between whites and Native Americans in the late 19th, also known as “Custer’s Last Stand.” In two days, June 25 and 26, 1876, the combined forces of over 2,000 Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapado Indians defeated and killed more than 250 US soldiers, including Colonel George Custer. The battle came as the US government tried to compel N.A. to remain on the reservation and N.A. tried to defend territory from white gold-seekers. This Indian advantage did not last long, however, as the union of these Indian fighters proved tenuous and the US army soon exacted retribution.
Battle of Wounded Knee(1890) A battle between the US army and the Dakota Sioux, in which several 100 Native Americans and 29 US soldiers died. Tensions erupted violently over 2 major issues: the Sioux practice of the “Ghost Dance,” which the US government had outlawed and the dispute over whether Sioux reservation land would be broken up because of the Dawes Act.
Dawes Severalty Act(1887) An act that broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. Leftover land was sold for money to fund US government efforts to ‘civilize’ N.A. Of 130 million acres held in N.A. reservations before the act, 90 million were sold to non-Native buyers.
Indian Reorganization ActPartially reversed the individualistic approach and belatedly tried to restore the tribal basis of Indian life that was stripped by the Dawes Severalty Act.
Comstock LodeFirst discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Homestead Act of 1862A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years, and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to 100s of 1000s of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land.
BoomersSettlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian territory of settlement.
SoonersPeople who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began.
DeflationA situation in which prices are declining.
The GrangeOriginally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads.
CooperativesFarms owner and operated by the government.
Greenback-Labor PartyPolitical party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers with program for improving labor.
The Farmers’ AllianceFarmers formed this in Texas in the late 1870s in order to break the grip of the railroads and manufacturers through cooperative buying and selling. The Alliance weakened itself by excluding blacks and landless tenant farmers.
Coxey’s ArmyUnemployed workers marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief.
Pullman Palace Car CompanyManufactured railroad cars; nationwide conflict between labor unions and railroads; 3,000 employees began a wildecat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, stopping traffic in Chicago.
Cross of Gold SpeechAn impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic convention, in which he attacked the ‘gold bugs’ who insisted that US currency be backed only with gold.
Fourth Party System(1896-1932) A term scholars have used to describe national politics from 1892-1932, when Republicans had a tight grip on the White House and issues such as industrial regulation and labor concerns became paramount, replacing older concerns such as civil service reform and monetary policy.
Dingley Tariff BillPassed in 1897, proposed new high tariff rates to generate enough revenue to cover the annual treasury deficits.