Chapter 12

industrial-organizational psychologyoptimize human behavior in workplace
glucoseform of sugar in the blood
theory yworkers motivated to achieve self-esteem intrinsic
anorexia nervosaeating disorder – dieting
instinctunlearned behavior found throughout a species
social leadershipgroup oriented
basal metabolic ratebody’s resting rate of energy
incentivestimulus that motivates behavior
halo errorsevaluation flawed by bias
drive-reduction theoryphysical need motivates an organism to satisfy that need
achievement motivationdesire for accomplishment
flowfocused state of consciousness
hierarchy of needsMaslow’s pyramid of human needs psychological needs have to be satisfied first
structured interviewsdisciplined interview using scales
homeostasisbalanced internal state
motivationenergizes behavior and directs it toward a goal
bulimia nervosaeating disorder – overeat and vomit
theory xworkers lazy need to be directed motivated by money
set pointpeople’s weight thermostat is set at
task leadershipgoal oriented
It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of:an instinct
Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to:give employees a high degree of responsibility for developing their own work procedures.
remind employees of the exact deadlines for the completion of work projects.
Theory X managers are more likely than Theory Y managers to:frequently monitor individual employees in order to make sure they are working.
Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed
Research has found that an animal’s sexual orientation can be altered by:manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions
An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by physiological need is called a(n):drive
The set point is:the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time
For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to:maintain homeostasis
People are most likely to dislike the taste of _____ foods.novel
A need refers to:a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
Which profession is most directly involved in the application of psychology’s principles to the workplace?industrial-organizational psychology
Andrea views her work as primarily an opportunity to climb up the corporate ladder in pursuit of increasingly better positions. Andrea apparently views her work as a:career
Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to suggest that almost all humans are genetically predisposed to:form close enduring relationships with fellow humans
With a single transplanted gene, scientists can now cause male ____ to display homosexual behavior.fruit flies
Lucille has been sticking to a strict diet but can’t seem to lose weight. What is the most likely explanation for her difficulty?her pre-diet weight was near her body’s set point
The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow’s hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:food and drink
Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?arousal theory
Work is most likely to satisfy the higher-level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy for those who:view their work as a calling
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet:lost interest in sex and social activities
Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:incentives
Carlos is so friendly and likable that his job supervisors and coworkers often appraise his work skills and performance more positively than is actually warranted. This best illustrates evaluators’ vulnerability to:halo errors
In order to predict future excellence in a young scholar, athlete, or artist, one would best examine the individual’s:preparation and daily discipline
Kelsey’s awareness of her own effectiveness as a customer service manager is enhanced by the performance appraisals she periodically receives from fellow managers, subordinates, customers, and her supervisor. This best illustrates the value of:360-degree feedback
When an organism’s weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n):decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate
The importance of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of:incentives
Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ____ needs.belongingness
Rigid patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice are called:instincts
Increases in insulin increase hunger indirectly by:decreasing blood glucose levels
When researchers monitored the professional accomplishments of more than 1500 highly intelligent individuals, they found that the most successful were more ambitious, energetic, and persistent. This best illustrates the importance of:drive reduction
The drive-reduction theory of motivation is more applicable to hunger than to sex because, unlike hunger, sexual desire is not a direct response to:a physiological need
Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to assume that employees are motivated by a:need for self-esteem
Mr. Walter has many years of experience as a personnel officer for a large corporation. He does not review most job applicants’ reference files because her is confident of his ability to predict their future work performance based on his diet face-to-face conversations with them. Mr. Walters’ confidence best illustrates:the interview illusion
Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrates the concept of:achievement motivation
Managers with a task-leadership style would be most likely to:remind employees of the exact deadlines for the completion of work projects
When meeting job applicants, employers ofter discount the influence of varying situations on applicants’ behaviors and presume that what they observe applicants do and say reflects the applicants’ enduring personal traits. This most clearly contributes to:the interview illusion
Dr. Thompson is involved in scripting interview questions that will effectively predict job applicant’ success in specific work positions. Her work best illustrates that of a(n) _____ psychologist:personnel
Those who view their work as a necessary but personally unfulfilling way to make money are said to view work as a:job
For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:a drive
Instinctive behavior is:unlearned
Organizational psychologists are most likely to be involved in:modifying work environments in order to improve employee engagement.
When peoples’ need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to:experience any of the above
About eight months ago, 14-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and under-nourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from:anorexia nervosa
On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of:incentives
The longer employees have worked for an organization and the higher they climb, the less likely they are to strongly agree that:their job is suited to their strengths
Research o the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that: