AP Human Geography Chapter 3 Migration Vocabulary

RemittancesMoney that migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
Reverse RemittancesMoney that migrants ask for from family and friends in their home countries, usually unemployed and undocumented migrants ask for money
Cyclic MovementsMovement that involves leaving home for short periods of time
Periodic MovementMovement that involves longer periods away from home
MigrationMovement that involves a degree of permanence, meaning that the mover may never return home
NomadismCyclic movement that takes place on familiar routes and that is among a definite set of places
Activity SpacesThe space within which daily activity occurs
Migrant LaborPeriodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
TranshumanceA seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
Military ServicePeriodic movement involving as many as 10 million United States citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
International MigrationHuman movement involving movement across international boundaries
ImmigrationThe act of a person migrating into a particular country or area
Internal MigrationHuman movement within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States
Forced MigrationHuman migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
Voluntary MigrationMovement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move
Laws of MigrationDeveloped by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants

1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration
2. The majority of migrants move a short distance
3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants or rural areas
5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

Gravity ModelModel which predicts interaction between places on a basis of their population size and distance between them. In mathematical terms, the equation is the multiplication of the 2 populations divided by the distance between them.
Push FactorsNegative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their home country and migrate to a new location
Pull FactorsPositive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locations from other areas
Distance DecayThe effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
Step MigrationMigration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Intervening OpportunityThe presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
DeportationThe act of the government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrants home country
Chain MigrationA pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate there)
Immigration WavesPhenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination
Global-Scale MigrationMigration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions
ExplorersA person examining a region that is unknown to them
ColonizationA physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
RussificationThe Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union
Guest WorkersLegal immigrant who has a work visa, usually short term
RefugeeA person who has fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
Internally Displaced PersonsPeople who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee
AsylumShelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state
RepatriationA refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization
GenocideActs committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial, or religious group
Immigration LawsLaws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state
QuotasEstablished limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
Selective ImmigrationProcess to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (i.e. criminal records, poor health, or subversive activities) are barred from immigrating
Kinship LinksTypes of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrant’s decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Regional ScaleInteractions occurring within a region, in a regional setting
Islands of DevelopmentPlace built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure