AP Human Geography: Chapter 1 Vocabulary

Cultural ecology definitionA culture’s adaptation to environment
Cultural ecology exampleWhy humans alter environment
Political ecology definitionEnvironmental consequences of political- economic arrangements
Political ecology exampleBig businesses cutting trees for cities space
Environmental determinism definitionThe theory that human actions are affected by physical environment
Environmental determinism exampleGreece was the ideal climate
Distance decay definitionOutcome of distance on interactions of cultures
Distance decay exampleDistance from a hearth
Absolute location definitionExact location of a place
Absolute location exampleLatitude and longitude coordinates
Relative location definitionUsing features to describe a place
Relative location exampleHersey is across the street from target
reference map definitionShows geographic features and locations
Reference map exampleMap of earth
Mental map definitionMaps in your mind about places you have seen, heard about, or been to
Mental map exampleThinking about what it was like in Italy
GPS or Global positioning system definitionLocates places on earth’s surface
GPS exampleCar navigation system
Sense of place definitionAdds emotional feeling to a place
Sense of place exampleBias towards ones hometown
Spatial distribution definitionArrangement of things across the earth
Spatial distribution exampleMap of cell towers in a state
Spatial perspective definitionWhere things happen in the world
Spatial perspective exampleMap of cholera outbreaks around the world
Spatial interaction definitionDepends on distances, accesibility, and connectivity
Spatial interaction exampleThe transportation of food exports from country to country
Cultural landscape definitionHuman activity that impacts the world that is not there naturally/anything made by humans
Cultural landscape exampleBuildings, roads, restaurants
Pandemic definitionAn outbreak of a world wide disease
Pandemic exampleCholera pandemic in 1816
Epidemic exampleCholera epidemic in 1990
Epidemic definitionOutbreak of disease in region
Fieldwork definitionResearch, interviewing, polling, etc. done in the environment of what is being researched instead of in an office or lab
Fieldwork exampleAn archaeologist studying the skeleton of a dinosaur, digging up dinosaur bones
Isotherm DefinitionLines connecting points of equal temperature values
Isotherm examplePlaces in the world with equal climates
Possibilism definitionNatural environment only limits the development of a culture
Possibilism exampleThe Mayans having a successful culture in a tropical climate.
Sequent occupance definitionCultural impacts in a certain place
Sequent occupance exampleHumans bringing technology when they move
Connectivity definitionConnections between places
Connectivity examplePeople from two different places being friends
Perception of place definitionThoughts about places people have that they havent been to
Perception of place examplePeople from Illinois having bad perceptions about the West Coast
Human geography definitionThe study of how people around the world live, communicate, and organize themselves and their land
Human geography exampleLanguage,Government, orders, and studying different cultures
Physical geography definitionThe study of the natural geographical features and physical phenomena
Physical geography exampleMountains, lakes, rivers
Five themes of geography:location exampleShed aquarium is in Chicago Illinois
Five themes of geography : Human/environment interaction exampleCars creating pollution
Five themes of geography : region exampleIllinois is in the Midwest region of the United States
Five themes of geography :place exampleAruba is warm; Antarctica is cold
Five themes of geography :movement exampleCars trains buses in big cities
Globalization definitionActions that encourage communication from people all over the world, creating relationships, and connecting people from different countries
Globalization exampleGlobal financial markets, social media, and popular culture are some examples of globalization
Stimulus diffusion definitionIdeas that affect a local community/impractical for everyone
Stimulus diffusion exampleVeggie burger in India
Relocation diffusion definitionMovement of people who adopted an idea and bring it with them to spread it
Relocation diffusion exampleMigration
G I S/geographic information system definitionDigital accounts of the environment
Thematic map definitionTells a story of a movement of a geographic phenomena
Thematic map exampleMap of tornadoes in the Midwest
GIS exampleshow voters parties and the computer will tally it
Activity space definitionRoutine places we go
Activity space exampleDunkin’ Donuts down the street
Remote-sensing definitionMonitoring earth from far away
Remote-sensing exampleSatellites an aircraft
Formal region definitionHave similar cultural/physical qualities
Formal region exampleFrench/ spoken in france, parts of canada, and colonies in africa
Functional region definitionSpecific interaction/activities
Functional region exampleShared political, social, economic purpose/urban area with people moving in and out
Perceptual region definitionRegions constructed to understand the nature/distribution of human geography phenomena
Perceptual region examplePerceptions of the South
Cultural trait definitionSingle part of a culture
Cultural trait exampleTurban in a Muslim society
Cultural complex definitionCombination of traits in a culture
Cultural complex exampleCattle/many uses around the world
Cultural hearth definitionAn area where cultural traits are invented and diffused
Cultural hearth exampleIslam founded in 500 CE around Mecca and Medina
Cultural barriers definitionRules of what is not acceptable in a culture
Cultural barrier exampleProhibition of alcohol
Contagious diffusion definitionExpansion diffusion in which nearly all people are affected near the place
Contagious diffusion exampleCholera
Hierarchical diffusion definitionSpreads to places that are most likely to adopt it
Hierarchical diffusion exampleCrocs