AP Human Geography: Urban Patterns

AnnexationDefinition: Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
Example: Expands Urban Areas.
Application: Very Important because Annexation affects urban areas.
Census TractDefinition: An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urban areas, census tracks correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Example: Census
Application:Very Important because Census Tract affects urban areas.
Concentric Zone ModelDefinition: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Example:Dart
Application:Very Important because Concentric Zone Model affects urban areas.
Council of GovernmentDefinition: A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
Example: Town Hall
Application:Very Important because Council of Government affects urban areas.
Density GradientDefinition: The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Example: Model
Application:Very Important because Density Gradient affects urban areas.
Edge CityDefinition: A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Example: Westchester
Application:Very Important because Edge City affects urban areas.
FilteringDefinition: A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner to abandonment.
Example: Forclosure
Application:Very Important because Filtering affects urban areas.
GentrificationDefinition: A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
Example: I don’t Know
Application:Very Important because Gentrification affects urban areas.
GreenbeltDefinition: A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Example: Plants and such on the border
Application:Very Important because Greenbelt affects urban areas.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)Definition: In the United States, a central city of at least 50000 population, the country within which the city is located, and adjacent countries meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Example: MSA
Application:Very Important because Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) affects urban areas.
Micropolitan Statistical AreaDefinition: An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the country in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Example: MSA
Application: Very Important because Micropolitan Statistical Area affects urban areas.
Multiple Nuclei ModelDefinition: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Example: Multiple spots
Application: Very Important because Micropolitan Statistical Area affects urban areas.
Peripheral ModelDefinition: A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Example: Peripheral
Application: Very Important because Peripheral Model affects urban areas.
Public HousingDefinition: Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes.
Example: Important for low class citizens
Application: Very Important because Public Housing affects urban areas.
RedliningDefinition: A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Example: Redlining
Application: Very Important because Redlining affects urban areas.
Rush (or Peak) HourDefinition: The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
Example: Peak hour
Application: Very Important because Rush (or Peak) Hour affects urban areas.
Sector ModelDefinition: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Example: I don’t know
Application: Very Important because Sector Model affects urban areas.
Smart GrowthDefinition: Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
Example: NYC
Application: Very Important because Smart Growth affects urban areas.
SprawlDefinition: Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Example: I don’t know
Application: Very Important because Sprawl affects urban areas.
Squatter SettlementAn area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Example: NYC
Application: Very Important because Squatter Settlement affects urban areas.
UnderclassDefinition: A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Example: I don’t know
Application: Very Important because Underclass affects urban areas.
UrbanizationAn increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Example: NYC
Application: Very Important because Urbanization affects urban areas.
Urban RenewalDefinition: Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Example: NYC
Application: Very Important because Urban Renewal affects urban areas.
Zoning OrdinanceDefinition: A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
Example: I don’t know
Application: Very Important because Zoning Ordinance affects urban areas.