Ap Human Geography Chapter 11

Agglomeration IndustriesIndustries that concentrate the bulk of their facilities in one city
Assembly LineIn a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Break-of-Bulka location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
Brownfieldabandoned industrial sites
Bulk-gaining industryAn industry in which the final product gains weight and size during manufacturing
bulk-reducing industryAn industry in which the final product decreases weight and size during manufacturing.
capitalAn economic system based on private ownership of capital
complementarityThe actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.
cottage industryManufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
deindustrializationprocess by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
export processing zoneAreas where government create favorable investments ad trading conditions to attract export-orientated industries.
footloose industryIndustry that is located in a wide variety of places without a significant change in its cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital.
“Fordism”System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford.
Post-fordismmanufacturing process broken down into differentiated components, with different groups of people performing different tasks to complete the product.
Growth PoleAn urban center deliberately placed by a country’s government to stimulate economic growth in the hinterland
industrial inertiawhen an industry stays in a location even after the advantages for locating there have ceased to exist
industrial revolutionA series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infrastructureFundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
economies of scaleThe cost advantages that a business gains due to expansion.
labor-intensiveAn industry where a high percentage of the overhead costs are consumed by paying employees.
least-cost theorya concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration
location theoryA logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
manufacturing regionA region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together The major U.S industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the states of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere.
market orientationthe tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs
mass productionProcess of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
outsourcingA decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
primary industryThe part of the economy that produces raw materials; examples include agriculture, fishing, mining, and forestry.
raw material orientationthe location of the manufacturing plant in relation to the source of raw materials
site characteristicsThree economic factors based on the location of a factory: land, labor, and capital.
situation characteristicseconomic factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
secondary industryan industry that deals with manufacturing or construction
special economic zoneRegion offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions, and other incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
Explain the Industrial Revolution by:
1) Describing its origin
2) Describing its diffusion and current pattern of industrial regions
1) DESCRIBING ITS ORIGIN
– from cottage industries to the Industrial Revolution
– social, economic, and political change
– impact of the Industrial Revolution especially great on iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processing

2) DESCRIBING ITS DIFFUSION AND CURRENT PATTERN OF INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
– began in England (1733)
– 1826 –> England and parts of France
– then France and America
– spreads out from there (into East Asia)

Map manufacturing zones in different regions with different specific strengths– Northwestern Europe
– Northeastern U.S.
– traditional regions
– automobiles
– New Regions:
– Southwestern and Central Europe
– South and Southwestern U.S.
Compare and contrast pre-industrial, industrial, and post-industrial life and landscape and give examples of each> Pre-Industrial: Early 20th century –> better heating requires less coal and more iron (Gary, Indiana)
> Industrial: Mid 20th century –> foreign iron and scrap steel (East and West coasts of the U.S.
> Post-Industrial: Late 20th century –> cheaper to import steel, most mills closed down, rise of minimills that specialize in scrap
Describe how site and situation factors influence the location of manufacturing and give examplesSite
– Labor
– most important site factor
– labor intensive industries (textiles)
– Land
– Rural sites
– Environmental factors
– Bid Rate/Bid Rent: cost per acre of land, closer to city higher the price
– Capital
– Banking
– Investors
Explain the location of industry by:
1) Contrasting raw material-oriented with market-oriented industries
2) Explaining Weber’s “least-cost” theory
3) Discussing break-of-bulk
4) Defining “footloose” industries
1) CONTRASTING RAW MATERIAL-ORIENTED WITH MARKET-ORIENTED INDUSTRIES
– Raw material-oriented industries
-closer to input rather than output/market
– Market-oriented industries
-closer to output/market rather than input
2) EXPLAINING WEBER’S “LEAST COST” THEORY
– industries place their factory/business in a place that will allow for low transportation costs and the most efficiency (more land vs less land)
3) DISCUSSING BREAK-OF-BULK
– if different modes of transportation are needed (ex- ship to train to truck), then an industry/business will be located close to a break-of-bulk point, which is a location where different modes of transportation are all located
– ex: Milwaukee
– airport, body of water, place for trucks, and railroads
4) DEFINING “FOOTLOOSE” INDUSTRIES
– in a footloose industry, location is not strongly influenced by access to materials and/or markets, and can operate in a wide range of locations
Discuss the problems created by industrialization in MDCs and LDCsMDCs
– deglomeration
– climate over need of input or market proximity
– sunbelt/rust belt
– right to work laws
– union membership
– textile production
LDCs
– Maquiladoras
– MDCs unsupportive
– development