Central Place Theory AP Human Geography

Consumer ServicesProvide services to individual consumers who desire them and can pay for them. i.e. Retail & Wholesale, Health & Social, Education, Leisure & Hospitality, Other U.S. Jobs
Business ServicesFacilitate the activities of other businesses. i.e. Professional, financial, transportation, and information
Public ServicesProvide security and protection for citizens and businesses. i.e. Government workers, Police, (public good)
Central Place TheoryExplains the spacial arrangement, size, and number of settlements.
Can be used to identify profitable location for services.
1933 German Geographer Walter Christaller
Christaller Assumptions*an isotropic (all flat) surface
*an evenly distributed population
*evenly distributed resources
*similar purchasing power of all consumers and they will
patronize the nearest market
*transportation costs equal in all directions
*no excess profits (perfect competition)
Central Placesettlement that provides services for the population living around it.
Market Place / Hinterlandarea surrounding a service.
Rangemaximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Thresholdminimum population required to support the service
low order servicessimple, basic services (grocery store)
high order servicesspecialized (universities)
low order settlementprovide low order services
high order settlementsprovide high order services
sphere of influencearea under influence of the CP
Rank Size Rulea country’ nth-largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
1-100,000
2-50,000
3-33,333
4-25,000
Primate City RuleLargest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement
Mexico City – 8.9 million
Guadalajara – 1.5 million
Primate CityMajor City that works as the financial, political, and population center of a country.
Advantages of Primate CitiesLarge-scale economy
Attract overseas investment
Attractive places of migration
Resources, services, and infrastructure
Disadvantages of Primate CitiesHousing Shortages
Traffic congestion
Crime & pollution
Urban/rural inequalities
Concentration of power supplies
Increasing land value
Progressive core
Primate Cities ExamplesParis, London, Mexico City, and Bangkok
Gravity Modelpredicts the degree of interaction between 2 places
Reilly’s Law of Gravitation*variation of the gravity model
*Reilly used this model to establish the hinterland
*2 cities of the same size would have a trade area boundary exactly in the middle of each city – the smaller the city the *closer the hinterland.
*boundary between both cities is known as the breaking point
Distance DecayThe further away 2 cities or ideas are the less likely they are to interact and move
directly related to the gravity model and Reilly’s Law of Retail Gravitation
Offshore Financial Servicessmall countries (i.e. islands or micro states)
low or no taxes
privacy and bank secrecy laws
Outsourcinginsurance claims, transcription, celeriac work, low wages, speak english
Basic Industriesexports or consumers outside the settlement.
Non Basic Incdustriescostumers live in the same community
Clustered Rural Settlementa rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other, with fields surrounding the settlement.
Hamlet or Village
Circular Rural SettlementCentral open space surrounded by structures
Kraal villages in sub-Saharan Africa
Linear Rural SettlementsBuildings clustered along a road, river, or dike to facilitate communications – fields extent behind the buildings in long, narrow strips.
French Long-lot system
Dispersed Rural SettlementsA rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Midwest
Enclosure MovementProcess of consolidating small land-holdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during 18th century
Single farms more efficient
Village populations declined and moved to cities
Industrial Revolution
UrbanizationGrowth of Urban Settlements
increase in number of people
increase in the percentage of people living in cities
Significant FactMDCs have a Higher % of urban residents
…but…
LDCs have more large cities
8 out of 10 most populous cities
Cario, Delhi, Jakarta