Chapter 39 APUSH

1. One reason for the end of the postwar economic boom in the 1970s wasa drastic decline in worker productivity.
2. Although the median income of American families stagnated from 1970s to 1990, the reason it didn’t decline waswives’ wages maintained the family income.
3. Lyndon Johnson’s insistence on fighting the Vietnam War and funding the Great Society without a tax increase to pay for them led toa drastic inflation of prices in the 1970s.
4. The poor economic performance of the 1970s brought an abrupt end tothe liberal dream that affluent American could spend its way to social justice.
5. The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed thatAmerica’s Asian allies would have to fight their wars without large numbers of American troops.
6. Despite his political skills and foreign policy knowledge, Richard Nixon harbored deep and bitter resentments againstthe liberal establishment that had fought him throughout his career.
7. Perhaps Richard Nixon’s most valuable asset as he began his presidency in 1969 was hisexpertise in foreign affairs.
8. President Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization of the war in Vietnam called fora gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese.
9. Richard Nixon’s Vietnam policy included all of the following exceptincreased American troop commitments.
10. The American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely ofthe least privileged young Americans.
11. In 1971, a group of Vietnam War veterans in the U.S.tossed their medals in front of the Capital building to protest against the war.
12. President Nixon’s 1970 invasion of Cambodia led todramatic new waves of bitter domestic protest against the war.
13. The ____ Amendment ____ the voting age to ____.
a. Twenty-Sixth; raised; twenty-one
b. Twenty-Fourth; lowered; eighteen
c. Twenty-Fifth; raised; nineteen
d. Twenty-Sixth; lowered; eighteen
e. Twenty-Sixth; lowered; sixteen
Twenty-Sixth; lowered; eighteen
14. The top-secret Pentagon Papers, leaked and published in 1971exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam War.
15. President Nixon’s chief foreign policy adviser, throughout his administration, wasHenry Kissinger.
16. Richard Nixon’s policy of d├ętenteushered in an era of relaxed tensions between the United States and the two leading communist powers, China and the Soviet Union.
17. The Nixon administration still reflected a staunch anticommunist policy when it engaged in covert operations to overthrow the elected leftist government ofChile
18. In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court upheld a married couple’s right to use contraceptives based ona right to privacy.
19. The Supreme Court’s Miranda and Escobedo decisions came under sharp attack from many conservatives because theyguaranteed the rights of criminal suspects against mistreatment by the police.
20. The Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Earl Warren, outraged religious conservatives in 1962-1963 when itruled that prayer and Bible reading in public schools violated the First Amendment.
21. When it came to welfare programs, Richard Nixonsupported significant expansion in many areas.
22. Richard Nixon’s legislation guaranteeing that Social Security raises would be indexed to guarantee against inflationactually contributed to increased inflation in the 1970s.
23. Richard Nixon’s Philadelphia Planrequired construction trade unions to establish timetables and goals for hiring black apprentices.
24. The difference between Lyndon Johnson’s affirmative action programs and those of Richard Nixon wasthat Johnson intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups.
25. The Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration aroused bitter opposition among many business people becausethey directly involved the federal government in many aspects of business decision making.
26. All of the following were created during Richard Nixon’s presidency exceptthe Medicare program.
27. To control creeping inflation in the early 1970s, President Richard Nixonimposed a ninety-day wage and price freeze.
28. Richard Nixon’s southern strategy included the policy ofsoft-pedaling civil rights and opposing school busing to achieve racial balance.
29. George McGovern, the Democratic nominee for the presidency in 1972, alienated the traditional working-class backbone of the Democratic partyby appealing to racial minorities, feminists, and youth.
30. The shaky agreement that brought an end to American fighting in Vietnam in January 1973 representeda thinly disguised American retreat.
31. As part of the cease-fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973the United States withdrew all its troops from Vietnam.
32. In 1973, the American public was shocked to learn thatthe U.S. Air Force had been secretly bombing Cambodia since 1969.
33. In response to Congress’s attempt to stop him from continuing the bombing of Cambodia, President Nixonrepeatedly vetoed Congress’s bills to halt the attacks.
34. The 1973 War Powers Actrequired presidential reporting and congressional approval of extended troop commitments.
35. As a result of U.S. support for Israel in 1973, when it was attacked by Egypt and SyriaArab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
36. America’s strong support for Israel in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War led toan OPEC oil boycott of the United States and a subsequent energy crisis and recession.
37. The list of Nixon illegal administration activities uncovered in the Watergate scandal included all of the following exceptpaying Supreme Court justices to write favorable opinions.
38. Richard Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the special prosecutor and the Congress by claiming thathe had executive privilege (confidentiality).
39. Congressman Gerald Ford had become vice president of the United States whenSpiro Agnew resigned on corruption charges and Nixon appointed Ford under the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
40. The most controversial action of Gerald Ford’s presidency waspardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed while president.
41. The Helsinki accords, signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of thirty-four other nations,legitimated Soviet-dictated boundaries in Eastern Europe, while spawning human rights efforts there.
42. The people of the United States had provided just about everything for South Vietnam exceptthe will to win the war.
43. When the North Vietnamese launched a full-scale invasion of South Vietnam in 1975,the South Vietnamese government quickly collapsed.
44. While most of the social movements born in the 1960s declined or disappeared, one that continued and gained even greater momentum in the 1970s was thefeminist movement.
45. Title IX was passed by Congress in 1972 toprohibit sex discrimination in any federally funded education program or activity.
46. The proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), passed by Congress in 1972 and eventually ratified by 35 states, stated the following:“Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on the basis of sex.”
47. The “boat people” werea second wave of Vietnamese people who sought to escape oppressive communist regimes for freedom.
48. The Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade declared state laws prohibiting abortion were unconstitutional because theyviolated a woman’s constitutional right to privacy in her own person.
49. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) failed to be ratified by the needed 38 states largely becausean antifeminist backlash led by Phyllis Schlafly stirred sufficient opposition to stop it.
50. As part of the backlash against the women’s movement, antifeminists blamed feminists forescalating divorce rates.
51. The most explosive domestic controversy of the 1970s centered around issues ofrace
52. The effect of the Supreme Court ruling in Milliken v. Bradley, which held that integration did not have to take place across school district lines, was toreinforce the division between poorer, minority inner city schools and nearly all-white suburbs.
53. The Supreme Court, in the Bakke case, held thatracial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admissions.
54. American Indian activists brought attention to their cause in the 1970s by seizingAlcatraz Island and Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
55. The first wave of feminism grew out of the ____ movement, and the second wave of feminism grew out of the ____ movement.abolitionist; civil rights
56. On which of the following issues did most second wave feminists agree?Abortion rights
57. In 1976, President Gerald Ford won the Republican nomination by defeating a strong challenge fromformer California governor Ronald Reagan.
58. James Earl (Jimmy) Carter enjoyed considerable popularity when he won the presidency becausehis emphasis on honesty contrasted with the corruptions of Watergate.
59. Jimmy Carter quickly found himself in political trouble because herelied too heavily on a small circle of Georgia advisers.
60. The guiding principle of President Carter’s foreign policy washuman rights.
61. President Jimmy Carter’s most spectacular foreign-policy achievement was theCamp David agreement between Israel and Egypt.
62. President Carter believed that the fundamental problem of the American economy in the late 1970s wasU.S. dependence on foreign oil.
63. The first major trouble to afflict President Carter’s foreign policy was theominous reheating of the Cold War with the Soviet Union.
64. The oil shocks of the 1970s brought home to Americans the stunning fact thattheir economy was increasingly dependent on foreign trade and the global economy.
65. The SALT II Treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States died in the Senate when the Sovietsinvaded Afghanistan
66. President Carter’s malaise speech was notable forchiding Americans for falling into a moral and spiritual crisis in their quest to acquire material goods.
67. The most humiliating failure during the Iran hostage crisis came whenPresident Carter’s attempted mission to rescue the hostages ended in disaster.