Chapter 5. APUSH: Benjamin Franklin, John Peter Zenger, Phillis Wheatley, Praying Towns

Jonathan Edwardsbrilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening; famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an angry God”
Benjamin Franklinauthor, scientist, printer; “the first civilized American”
Michel-Guillaume de CrevecoeurFrench settler who posed the question the question of what American is after seeing the people in America like he had never seen before
George Whitefielditinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies
John Peter Zengercolonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press
Phillis Wheatleyformer slave who became a poet at an early age
John Singleton Copelycolonial painter who studied and worked in Britain
John TrumbullAmerican artist, painted the Declaration of Independence which is on the back of the $2 bill
Charles Wilson BealeAmerican artist who practiced dentistry, ran a museum, stuffed birds, and made portraits of George Washington
Benjamin WestAmerican painter who had to go to London to finish his artistic training, close friend of George II and the court painter
Jacob ArminiusDutch theologian who preached that individual free will would determine a person’s fate (against Predestination)
Andrew HamiltonScottish lawyer who had a legal victory on behalf printer and newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger
Paxton Boysscots irish frontiersman who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and NC
Great Awakeningspectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s
Anglicansestablished religion in southern colonies and NY; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too close ties with British crown
rack rentingwhen an owner of land rents out space and steadily increases the price
Regulator movementrebellious movement of frontiersman in the southern colonies that included future President Andrew Jackson (sparked by the Paxon Boys) (North Carolina)
old lightsorthodox clergymen / skeptical of emotionalism and theatrical antics of revivalists during the Great Awakening
new lightsministers that defend the Great Awakening and worked to revitalize American religion
triangular tradesmall but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa, and the West Indies
Molasses Actattempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with the French West Indies (they were buying Molasses)
Scots-Irishgroup that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authorities
naval storestar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine; stimulated production of ships
praying townsterm for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized
almshouseshome for the poor, supported by charity or public funds
jayle birdspopular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities
tavernspopular colonial centers of recreation, gossip, and political debate
Congregational Churchpuritan church system where everyone gets a vote on issues at the church
presbyterianprotestant denomination adhering to the views of John Calvin (scots- irish denomination)
Arminiansfollowers of Dutch theologian Jacob Arminius who preached that individual free will determined a persons fate
heresiesstatements that go against what the priest, church, and God says
rummade of molasses
all of the following are reasons the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies sought independence EXCEPTD. distinctive ethnic or racial structures
identify the statement that is FALSED. by 1775, the black population rose to over 1 million
one feature common to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was theirD. rapidly growing populations
as a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the 18th centuryA. a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country
the population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly toE. the natural fertility of all Americans
the average age of the American colonists in 1775 wasE. 16
by 1775, which of the following communities could NOT be considered a city in colonial America?E. Baltimore
by the end of the 1700s, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of colonial AmericaE. 90%
the Scots-Irish can best be described asA. pugnacious, lawless, and individualistic
with regard to governmental authority, the Scots-Irish colonistsC. cherished no love for the British or any other government
an armed march in Philadelphia in 1764, protesting the Quaker oligarchy’s lenient policy toward the Indians was known asB. March of the Paxton Boys
in North Carolina, spearheaded by the Scotch-Irish, a small insurrection against eastern domination of the colony’s affair was known asB. Regulator Movement
by 1775, the __________ were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial AmericaA. Africans
the population of the thirteen American colonies wasB. perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominately Anglo-Saxon
the South held about _____ percent of the slaves in the thirteen colonies of North AmericaB. 90
the most ethnically diverse region of colonial America was _________, whereas _________ was the least ethnically diverseD. the middle colonies, New England
identify the statement that is FALSE (2)the population of the thirteen colonies, mainly Anglo-Saxon, was the least mixed to be found anywhere in the world
colonial immigrants laid the foundations for a new multicultural American national identity byB. intermarrying with people from other ethnic groups
in contrast to the seventeenth century, by 1775, colonial AmericansA. had become more stratified into social classes
on the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility in the colonies decreased for all of the following reasons EXCEPTD. the average size of New England farms increased dramatically
by the mid 1700s, the number of poor people in the American coloniesD. remained tiny compared with the number in England
in 1760, fearful of heavy concentrations of resentful slaves, which colonial legislature unsuccessfully sought to pass legislation that would halt the further importation of the slavesA. South Carolina
how did British authorities respond to efforts by colonial legislatures to restrict or halt the importation of slaves?B. British leaders vetoed such efforts
the riches created by the growing slave population in the American SouthD. were not distributed evenly among whites
the most honored profession in early colonial society wasC. the ministry
the least honored profession in early colonial society wasA. physician
by the eighteenth century, the various colonial regions had distinct economic identities; the northern colonies relied on __________; the Chesapeake colonies and the southern colonies relied on ______, ___________.A. cattle and grain, tobacco, rice and indigo
the leading industry in the American colonies wasD. agriculture
one of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies wasA. commercial ventures
the Triangular Trade of the colonial American shipping industryE. involved the trading of rum for African slaves
identify the statement that is FALSEA. the triangular trade was infamously profitable and made up most of the colonial commerce
although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they did produce which of the following?E. all of these
the most important manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the eighteenth century wasC. lumbering
what proportion of the British marine fleet was American builtB. one-third
which of the following was NOT considered to be a naval store?E. glass
one feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was theB. growing desire of Americans to trade with other nations in addition to Britain
the Molasses Act of 1733 was intended toC. inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies
American colonists sought to trade with other countries other that Great BritainE. to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain
transportation in colonial America wasC. slow by any of the means available
colonial American taverns were all of the following EXCEPTA. frequently mainly by the lower class
English officials tried to establish the Church of England in as many colonies as possible becauseB. the church would act as a major prop for royal authority
in 1775, the _______ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial AmericaC. Congregational and Anglican
Match each denomination on the left with the region where it predominated
A. Congregationalist 1. the frontier
B. Anglican 2. New England
C. Presbyterian 3. the South
A. A-2; B-3; C-1
as the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in generalB. supported the Revolutionary cause
by the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America wasD. less fervid than when the colonies intellectualism
the main reason that Puritan churches were struggling in the early eighteenth century was becauseA. parishioners found their theological doctrines too elaborate
the religious doctrine of the Arminians held thatE. individual free will determined a person’s eternal fate
match each individual on the left with his or her talent
A. Jonathan Edwards
B. Benjamin Franklin
C. Phyllis Wheatly
1. poet
2. scientist
3. theologian
4. portrait artist
C. A-3; B-2; C-1
the New Light preachers of the Great AwakeningA. delivered intensely emotional sermons
the Great AwakeningE. all of these
the time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as all of the following exceptA. essential training for citizenship
to the Puritans, education was essential forA. reading the Bible
colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis onE. religion
the first American college free from denominational control wasE. the University of Pennsylvania
match the following description with the artist
A. John Trumbull
B. Charles Wilson Peale
C. Benjamin West
D. John Singleton Copley
1. regarded as a Loyalist during the Revolutionary War
2. best known for his portraits of George Washington, ran a museum, stuffed birds, and practiced dentistry
3. from Connecticut and was discouraged by his father as a youth, “Connecticut is not Athens”
4. close friend of George III and official court painter, was buried in London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral
C. A-3; B-2; C-4; D-1
all of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial AmericaC. lack of talent among the Americans
culture in colonial AmericaB. was generally ignored and unappreciated
the person most often called the “first civilized American” wasE. Benjamin Franklin
all of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin EXCEPTB. influential poetry
all of the following are true statements about colonial newspapers on the eve of the Revolution EXCEPTB. they were typically published twice a week
the jury’s decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant becauseC. it pointed the way to freedom of the press
one political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others wasD. self-taxation through representation
by 1775, most governors of American colonies wereB. appointed by the king
colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will becauseD. colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governor’s salaries
in colonial electionsB. the right to vote was reserved for property holders
by the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities EXCEPTA. complete democracy
colonists throughout the eighteenth century universally enjoyed all of the following amusements EXCEPTC. celebrating Christmas
by 1775, population growth in the American coloniesB. was causing the population to double about every twenty-five years
C. was attributable more to reproduction than to immigration
in 1775, most of the population in the American coloniesA. lived east of the Allegheny Mountains
B. lived in rural areas
C. was under twenty-five years of age
D. was of predominantly English stock
the rebelliousness and inclination toward violence of the Scots-Irish was demonstrated byB. the Paxton Boys in Philadelphia
C. the Regulator Movement in North Carolina
trends the sapped the spiritual vitality from many early eighteenth-century churches includedA. clerical intellectualism
D. lay liberalism
leaders of the Great Awakening endorsed the concepts ofB. divine omnipotence
D. predestination
in colonial New England, education was primarilyA. for boys
C. intended for religious instruction
Benjamin Franklin (2)A. was the author of Poor Richard’s Almanac
B. celebrated the virtues of thrift, hard work, and common sense
E. was a scientist
colonial newspaper printer John Peter ZengerA. was accused of seditious libel
B. was found innocent of the charges brought against him
C. printed comments accusing the royal governor of corruption
generally, in the eighteenth-century American coloniesA. most people had sufficient food to stay healthy
C. lotteries were a usual source of funds used for civic purposes
E. labor was heavy and constant
by the mid-eighteenth century, Britain’s North American colonies were similar in which of the following ways?A. opportunities for social mobility
B. basically Protestant in religion
C. some measurement of self-government
E. basically English in language and custom