Great SocietyPresident Lyndon B. Johnson’s domestic programs, which included civil rights legislation, antipoverty programs, government subsidy of medical care, federal aid to education, consumer protections, and aid to the arts and humanities.
Economic Opportunity Act1964 act which created a series of programs, including Head Start to prepare disadvantaged preschoolers for kindergarten and the Job Corps and Upward Bound to provide young people with training and employment, aimed at alleviating poverty and spurring economic growth in impoverished areas.
MedicareA health plan for the elderly passed in 1965 and funded by a surcharge on Social Security payroll taxes.
MedicaidA health plan for the poor passed in 1965 and paid for by general tax revenues and administered by the states.
Equal Pay ActIn 1963 – Law that established the principle of equal pay for equal work. Trade union women were esp. critical in pushing for, and winning, congressional passage of the law.
The Feminine MystiqueThe title of an influential book written in 1963 by Betty Friedan criticizing the ideal whereby women were encouraged to confine themselves to roles within the domestic sphere.
Presidential Commission on the Status of WomenCommission appointed by President Kennedy in 1961, which issued a 1963 report documenting jobs and educational discrimination.
National Organization for WomenWomen’s civil rights organization formed in 1966. Initially, NOW focused on eliminating gender discrimination in public institutions and the workplace, but by the 70s it also embraced many of the issues raised by more radical feminists.
Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionResolution passed by Congress in 1964 in the wake of a naval confrontation in the Gulf of Tonkin between the US and North Vietnam. It gave the president virtually unlimited authority in conducting the Vietnam War. The Senate terminated the resolution in 1971 following outrage over the US invading Cambodia.
Operation Rolling ThunderMassive bombing campaign against North Vietnam authorized by President Johnson in 1965; against expectation, it ended up hardening the will of the North Vietnamese to continue fighting.
Students for a Democratic SocietyAn organization for social change founded by college students in 1960.
Port Huron StatementA 1962 manifesto by Students for a Democratic Society from its first national convention in Port Huron, Michigan, expressing students’ disillusionment with the nation’s consumer culture and the gulf between the rich and poor, as well as a rejection of Cold War foreign policy, including the war in Vietnam.
New LeftA term applied to radical students of the 60s and 70s, distinguishing their activism from the Old Left – the communists and socialists of the 30s and 40s who tended to focus on economic and labor questions rather than culture issues.
Young Americans for FreedomThe largest student political organization in the country, whose conservative members defended free enterprise and supported the war in Vietnam.
Sharon StatementDrafted by founding members of the Young Americans for Freedom, this manifesto outlined the group’s principles and inspired young conservatives who would play important roles in the Reagan administration in the 80s.
CountercultureA culture embracing values or lifestyles opposing those of the mainstream culture. Became synonymous with hippies, people who opposed and rejected conventional standards of society and advocated extreme liberalism in their sociopolitical attitudes and lifestyles.
Tet offensiveMajor campaign of attacks launched throughout South Vietnam in January 1968 by the North Vietnamese and Vietcong. A major turning point in the war, it exposed the credibility gap between official statements and the war’s reality, and it shook Americans’ confidence in the government.
1968 Democratic National ConventionWas held in Chicago. Purpose was to elect a suitable nominee to run as the Democratic Party’s choice for president in the 1968 election. Events that led to convention were: assassination of Martin Luther King and JFK. Riots broke out from Anti-Vietnam war protesters during the time of the convention. These riots turned into bloody battles after the Chicago police tried to stop the protesters. Democrats settled on Hubert Humphrey but lost to Richard Nixon. Shows a large split in the party over the Vietnam War.
Chicano Moratorium CommitteeGroup founded by activist Latinos to protest the Vietnam War.
Women’s LiberationA new brand of feminism in the 60s that attracted primarily younger, college-education women fresh from the New Left, antiwar, and civil right movements who sought to end the denigration and exploitation of women.
Title IXA law passed by Congress in 1972 that broadened the 1964 Civil Rights Act to include educational institutions, prohibiting colleges and universities that received federal funds from discriminating on the basis of sex. By requiring comparable funding for sports programs, Title XI made women’s athletics a real presence on college campuses.
Stonewall InnA 2 day riot by Stonewall Inn patrons after the police raided the gay bar in New York’s Greenwich Village on 1969; the event contributed to the rapid rise of a gay liberation movement.
Silent majorityTerm derived from the title of a book by Ben J. Wattenberg and Richard Scammon (called The Real Majority) and used by Nixon in a 1969 speech to describe those who supported his positions but did not publicly assert their voices, in contrast to those involved in the antiwar, civil rights, and women’s movement.
VietnamizationA new US policy, devised under President Nixon in the early 70s, of delegating the ground fighting to the South Vietnamese in the Vietnam War. American troop levels American casualties dropped correspondingly, but the killing in Vietnam continued.
My LaiThe 1968 execution by US Army troops of nearly 500 people in the South Vietnamese village of My Lai, including a large number of women and children.
D├ętenteThe easing of conflict between the US and the Soviet Union during the Nixon Administration, which was achieved by focusing on issues of common concerns, such as arms control and trade.
Warren CourtThe Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953-1969), which expanded the Constitution’s promise of equality and civil rights. It issued landmark decisions in the areas of civil rights, criminal rights, reproductive freedom, and separation of church and state.
Lyndon B. Johnsonsigned the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy families. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably Medicare and Medicaid.
Barry Goldwater1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history.
Betty Friedanfeminist author of The Feminine Mystique in 1960. Her book sparked a new consciousness among suburban women and helped launch the second-wave feminist movement.
Ngo Dinh Diema conservative anti-communist who overthrew Bao Dai, the emperor of southern Vietnam, when it seemed likely that a communist leader would be elected in the upcoming elections.
Robert Kennedyyounger brother of JFK who entered public life as U.S. Attorney General during the Kennedy Administration. Later elected senator from New York, he became an anti-war, pro-civil rights presidential candidate in 1968, launching a popular challenge to incumbent President Johnson. Amid that campaign, he was assassinated in California on June 6, 1968.
Richard M. NixonElected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using “Vietnamization”, which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
George C. WallaceSouthern populist and segregationist, as governor of Alabama, he famously defended his state’s policies of racial segregation. He ran for president several times as a Democrat, but achieved his greatest influence when he ran as a third-party candidate in 1968, winning five states.
Henry KissingerNational Security Advisor and Secretary of State during the Nixon Administration, he was responsible for negotiating an end to the Yom Kippur War as well as the Treaty of Paris that led to a ceasefire in Vietnam in 1973.