AP Psych – Sleep, Dream, Consciousness & Hypnosis

The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was:
a) psychoanalysis
b) behaviorism
c) functionalism
d) structuralism
e) Gestalt psychology
b) behaviorism
Consciousness is:
a) the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember.
b) the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
c) the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.
d) effortless encoding of incidental information into memory.
e) our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
e) our awareness of ourselves and our environment
By 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists’ renewed interest in:
a) behavior genetics.
b) emotion.
c) socialization.
d) mental processes.
e) mental health.
d) mental processes
Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to:
a) occur slowly.
b) be limited in its capacity.
c) contribute to effective problem solving.
d) occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions.
e) relate to childhood events.
d) occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions
Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.
a) monism; dualism
b) serial processing; parallel processing
c) narcolepsy; sleep apnea
d) latent content; manifest content
e) delta wave; alpha wave
b) serial processing; parallel processing
Those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:
a) neuroadaptation
b) animal magnetism.
c) biological rhythms.
d) narcolepsy.
e) REM sleep.
c) biological rhythms
When light strikes the retina, it signals the suprachiasmatic nucleus to alter ________ production by the pineal gland.
a) melatonin
b) serotonin
c) acetylcholine
d) dopamine
e) endorphin
a) melatonin
Our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:
a) dissociation.
b) narcolepsy.
c) the circadian rhythm.
d) night terrors.
e) sleep apnea.
c) the circadian rhythm
Sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus are called:
a) night terrors.
b) neuroadaptations.
c) dissociations.
d) hallucinations.
e) stressors.
d) hallucinations
Alpha waves are associated with:
a) REM sleep.
b) Stage 2 sleep.
c) Stage 3 sleep.
d) Stage 4 sleep.
e) a relaxed but awake state.
e) a relaxed but awake state
Sleeptalking may occur during:
a) Stage 1 sleep.
b) Stage 2 sleep.
c) REM sleep.
d) Stage 4 sleep.
e) any stage of sleep.
e) any stage of sleep
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called:
a) alpha waves.
b) beta waves.
c) delta waves.
d) theta waves.
e) sleep spindles.
c) delta waves
Paradoxical sleep is to slowwave sleep as ________ sleep is to ________ sleep.
a) REM; Stage 1
b) Stage 1; REM
c) REM; Stage 2
d) Stage 2; REM
e) REM; Stage 4
e) REM; Stage 4
After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour and a half, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular, and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth. Carlos was most likely experiencing:
a) Stage 4 sleep.
b) REM sleep.
c) narcolepsy.
d) night terrors.
e) sleep apnea.
b) REM sleep
When people are experiencing vivid dreams:
a) their bodies often move in accordance with what they dream.
b) their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids.
c) they are more likely to sleepwalk than during any other stage of sleep.
d) their slow brainwave patterns indicate that they are deeply asleep.
e) they intermittently stop breathing.
b) their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids
At 3 o’clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues, we can expect an increasing occurrence of:
a) sleeptalking.
b) hypnagogic sensations.
c) muscle tension.
d) REM sleep.
e) Stage 4 sleep.
d) REM sleep
After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to:
a) be easily awakened.
b) have slower, more regular breathing.
c) have slower brain waves.
d) talk in his sleep.
e) have very relaxed muscles.
e) have very relaxed muscles
Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna’s heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is:
a) dreaming.
b) entering the third stage of sleep.
c) ready to sleepwalk.
d) exhibiting a sleep spindle.
e) experiencing a night terror.
a) dreaming
Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:
a) experiences very little REM sleep.
b) would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
c) dreams during Stage 4 rather than during REM sleep.
d) experiences more Stage 4 sleep than most people.
e) passes through the sleep cycle much more rapidly than most people.
b) would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep
Terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to:
a) viral infections.
b) sleep apnea.
c) insomnia.
d) night terrors.
e) dissociation.
a) viral infections
Deep sleep appears to play an important role in:
a) narcolepsy.
b) sleep apnea.
c) paradoxical sleep.
d) posthypnotic amnesia.
e) physical growth.
e) physical growth
Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?
a) Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime.
b) Eat a big dinner late in the evening so you’ll feel drowsy at bedtime.
c) Relax with a drink of your favorite alcoholic beverage just before bedtime.
d) Engage in some form of vigorous physical exercise shortly before bedtime.
e) Be sure to sleep later than usual once you do get to sleep.
a) Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime
Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
a) Awaken at the same time every day even if you have had a restless night.
b) Drink a glass of milk 15 minutes before bedtime.
c) Avoid taking short naps during the day.
d) Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime.
e) Don’t engage in strenuous physical exercise just before bedtime.
d) Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime
Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________.
a) REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
b) narcolepsy; sleep apnea
c) delta waves; alpha waves
d) Stage 4 sleep; Stage 1 sleep
e) Stage 1 sleep; REM sleep
a) REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial bus driver?
a) night terrors
b) insomnia
c) sleepwalking
d) narcolepsy
e) sleep apnea
d) narcolepsy
Sleep apnea is a disorder involving:
a) the cessation of breathing during sleep.
b)periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
c) hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating weightlessly.
d) the excessive use of sleeping pills or other sleep-inducing drugs.
e) screams and panic during deep sleep.
a) the cessation of breathing during sleep
Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from:
a) sleep apnea.
b) narcolepsy.
c) insomnia.
d) night terrors.
e) aphasia.
a) sleep apnea
About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. His pulse races and he gasps for breath. The next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from:
a) night terrors.
b) narcolepsy.
c) sleep spindles.
d) sleep apnea.
e) insomnia.
a) night terrors
It has been found that night terrors:
a) are usually recalled vividly for days following their occurrence.
b) are typically accompanied by a state of temporary muscular immobility or paralysis.
c) jolt the sleeper to a sudden state of full waking alertness.
d) typically occur during Stage 4 sleep.
e) involve the temporary inability to breathe.
d) typically occur during Stage 4 sleep
Research on dreaming indicates that:
a) some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming.
b) dreams cannot be confused with reality.
c) about half the dreams reported by young men have sexual overtones.
d) most dreams are unrelated to actual daily events.
e) it is impossible to perceive color in dream images.
a) some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming
Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ________ content.
a) manifest
b) latent
c) dissociated
d) paradoxical
e) delusional
a) manifest
Shane, a straight A student, remembers dreaming that he failed an important chemistry test. According to Freud, Shane’s account represents the ________ content of his dream.
a) paradoxical
b) manifest
c) delusional
d) latent
e) dissociated
b) manifest
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge’s account represents the ________ content of her dream.
a) paradoxical
b) manifest
c) latent
d) hypnagogic
e) hallucinatory
b) manifest
One theory suggests that the brain activity associated with ________ is helpful for developing and preserving neural pathways in the brain.
a) night terrors
b) near-death experiences
c) sleep apena
d) dreaming
e) Stage 4 sleep
d) dreaming
The activation synthesis theory best helps to explain why:
a) most dreams are realistic portrayals of pleasant life events.
b) dreams are accompanied by eye movements.
c) dreams typically express unacceptable feelings in a symbolically disguised form.
d) individuals with sleep apnea are unable to recall any of their dreams.
e) people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.
e) people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep
Hypnosis has been associated with quackery, thanks to the false claims made by:
a) Sigmund Freud.
b) Ernst Hilgard.
c) Martin Orne.
d) William Dement.
e) Anton Mesmer.
e) Anton Mesmer
Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The therapist is employing a technique called:
a) age regression.
b) posthypnotic suggestion.
c) paradoxical sleep.
d) dissociation.
e) posthypnotic amnesia.
a) age regression
Research indicates that memories retrieved during hypnosis are:
a) forgotten again as soon as the person awakens from the hypnotic state.
b) accurate recollections of information previously learned.
c) experienced as being inaccurate even when they are true.
d) often a combination of fact and fiction.
e) often accurate indicators of childhood sexual abuse.
d) often a combination of fact and fiction
Twenty-eight-year-old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is making use of:
a) hypnagogic sensations.
b) age regression.
c) REM rebound.
d) temporal dissociation.
e) the hidden observer.
b) age regression
Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua’s therapist was attempting to make use of:
a) age regression.
b) posthypnotic suggestion.
c) hypnagogic sensations.
d) REM rebound.
e) a hidden observer.
b) posthypnotic suggestion
While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well-balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of:
a) age regression.
b) posthypnotic suggestion.
c) a hidden observer.
d) posthypnotic amnesia.
e) paradoxical sleep.
b) posthypnotic suggestion
Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis are likely to argue that:
a) hypnosis is a unique state of consciousness.
b) hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of good hypnotic subjects.
c) the process of dissociation best explains hypnotic phenomena.
d) most hypnotized people are consciously faking hypnosis.
e) hypnotic susceptibility is positively correlated with introversion.
b) hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of good hypnotic subjects
The divided consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves:
a) role playing.
b) dissociation.
c) age regression.
d) motivational conflict.
e) obedience to authority.
b) dissociation
The belief that death involves the liberation of the soul from a bodily prison illustrates:
a) REM rebound.
b) monism.
c) dissociation.
d) narcolepsy.
e) dualism.
e) dualism
Plato’s belief that death involves the separation of the mind from the body is known as:
a) the circadian rhythm.
b) age regression.
c) dissociation.
d) dualism.
e) hypnagogic state.
d) dualsim