Chapter 9 & 10 Human Dev

On average, children grow _____ inches per year during middle and late childhood.2-3
On average, children gain _____ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.5-7
During elementary school years, most children double their:strength capabilities
During elementary school years, head circumference and waist circumference:decrease in relation to body height
Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is a reflection of:increased myelination of the central nervous system
What is the most common cause of death for children in middle childhood?injuries: motor vehicle accidents
Which of the following is true of overweight children?body mass index
97th % obese
95th % overweight
Which of the following statements about children and cardiovascular disease is true?uncommon in children
environmental experiences/behaviors
possess one or more risk factors- hypertension or obesity
A recent study found that children with a high body mass index and waist circumference are at risk for _____ a constellation of factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes.metabolic syndrome
_____ is the second leading cause of death in U.S. children 5 to 14 years of age.cancer
The incidence of cancer in children has _____ in recent years.slightly increased
Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children?leukemia
_____ are characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells.All cancers including brain, bone, lymph system, muscles, kidneys, and nervous system.
One in every _____ children in the United States develops cancer before the age of 19.330
Approximately _____ of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States receive special education or related services.14
A learning disability:difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading writing, and spelling
About _____ as many boys as girls are classified as having a learning disability.3 times
A number of causes for ADHD have been proposed, including:inherit from parents
brain damage during pre/post natal development
cigarette/alcohol exposure
low birth weight
Boys are _____ as likely to have autism spectrum disorders as girls are.4 times
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) requires that:evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and an individualized education plan, and education in the least restrictive environment.
Piaget proposed that the concrete operational stage lasts from approximately _____ years of age.7-11
Children who have reached the concrete operational stage are also capable of _____, which is the
Which of the following is a strategy for improving children’s memory skills?motivate children to remember material by understanding it rather than by memorizing it
repeat with variation on the instructional information and link early and often
embed memory-relevant language when instructing children encourage children to engage in mental imagery
The _____ theory states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: verbatim memory trace, and gist.fuzzy trace
According to the fuzzy trace theory, at some point during the early elementary school years, children begin to use gist more and this contributes to the improved memory and reasoning of older children because _____ are more enduring and less likely to be forgotten than _____.fuzzy traces
verbatim traces
The term “individual differences” in the text discussion of intelligence refers to:the stable, consistent ways in which people are different from each other
Mental age (MA) is:Binet’s measure of an individual’s level of mental development, compared with that of others
Howard Gardner has developed _____ types of intelligence.8
A gifted child has an IQ of _____ or higher.130+
By the time children are 11 years old, their vocabulary has increased to approximately:40,000 words
The _____ approach to reading instruction emphasizes the teaching of basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.phonics
Which of the following is a description a 9-year old is most likely to use to describe himself?describe themselves with psychological characteristics and traits in contrast to the more concrete self-descriptions of younger children.
Which of the following terms refers to self-evaluations in the different domains of an individual’s life?academic, athletic, appearance etc.
(Self Esteem- global self-evaluations. Self-concept- domain-specific evaluations)
Self-esteem refers to _____ self-evaluation while self-concept refers to _____ evaluative dimensions of the self
domain-specific evaluations of the self
Erik Erikson’s fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called:industry versus inferiority
Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:self-efficacy
_____ is the highest level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.universal ethical principles
Kohlberg emphasized perspective taking and _____ as critical aspects of the social stimulation that challenges children to change their moral reasoning.peer interactions
Which of the following would NOT be considered an arbitrary rule?using a fork at meals
raising your hand in class before speaking
Moral rules are widely accepted, somewhat impersonal and:obligatory
Comparing the math and visuospatial abilities of males and females show that:boys have better visuospatial skills than girls (some argue it’s a small difference)
In which of the following areas has it been found that girls exhibit better skills than boys?reading
verbal skills
Boys are more _____ aggressive, whereas girls are more _____ aggressive.physically verbal
Approximately _____ of stepfamily couples stay remarried.1/3
The term that describes the extent to which children are liked or disliked by their peer group is:sociometric status
All of the following are peer statuses EXCEPT _____.popular children
average children
neglected children
rejected children
controversial children
Kenneth Dodge argues that children go through five steps in processing information about their social world. Which of the following is NOT one of those steps?decode social cues
search for a response
select an optimal response
In a national survey of more than 15,000 sixth- through tenth-grade students, nearly ______ of the students reported experiencing bullying as either a victim or a perpetrator.1 in every 3
Children who are bullied have increased feelings of _____.loneliness and difficulty making friends
Children’s friendships are typically characterized by:similarity (including age, sex, race etc.)
Which of the following is NOT a function of childhood friendships?companionship
physical support
ego support
social comparison
affection and intimacy
The direct instruction approach to student learning and assessment is one of the two approaches. The other one is called the _____ approach.constructivist
Which of the following results do advocates of state-mandated testing argue will be positive outcomes of the testing?improved student performance, more time teaching the subjects that are tested, high expectations for all students, identification of poorly performing schools, teachers, and administrators, and improved confidence in schools as test scores rise.
Almost _____ of African American and Latino students attend schools in which 90% or more of the students are from minority groups.1/3