ch 16 APUSH

Comstock Lodefirst discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Chinese Exclusion ActPassed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Frederick Jackson TurnerAmerican historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Sitting Bulla chief of the Sioux
Crazy HorseA chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn
Little Big HornWHO: Indians and US
WHAT:Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
WHEN:1876
WHERE: S. Montana
WHY: Last major Indian victory
Chief JosephLead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech “I Will Fight No More Forever” mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Helen Hunt JacksonA writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
assimilationistsThese people had been mostly influenced by Jackson’s book and had deep sympathy for the Natives due to the injustices done to them, and would segregate Native American children from their people and teach them white culture and farming and industrial skills. They also emphasized formal education and training and conversion to Christianity for the Natives.
Dawes Severalty Act1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
Ghost Dance MovementThe last effort of Native Americans to resist US domination and drive whites from their ancestral lands, came through as a religious movement.
Wounded Kneevillage in South Dakota. In 1890 it was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people were killed, most of them unarmed.
Indian Reorganization Act1934 – Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Crop Lien SystemSimilar to sharecropping — merchants loan food and supplies to farmers so they can farm; farmers have to pay them back with some of their crops. When harvests were bad, farmers got deeper and deeper in debt to merchants.
George Washington CarverUnited States botanist and agricultural chemist who developed many uses for peanuts and soy beans and sweet potatoes (1864-1943)
Tuskegee instituteA normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too “accomodationist”.
Farmers’ Southern AllianceBy 1890, it had more than one million members. It rallied behind political reforms to solve farmers’ economic troubles.
Colored Farmers’ National AllianceMore than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens.
Plessy v. Fergusona 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Jim Crow lawsThe “separate but equal” segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
grandfather clauseA clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Ida B. WellsAfrican American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Booker T. WashingtonProminent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book “Up from Slavery.”
National Grange MovementOrganized in 1868 by Oliver H. Kelley as social and educational organization for farmers and their families.
Granger LawsGrangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Munn v. Illinois(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads
Wabash v. Illinois1886 – Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce ActApproved on February 4, 1887 the Interstate Commerce Act created an Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry. With this act the railroads became the first industry subject to Federal regulation.
National AllianceThe deepening crisis in farm prices in the 1880s resulted in the blending of a host of organizations into the National Alliance Movement. The movement had distinct branches in the South and Midwest.
Ocala PlatformA platform that would have significant impact in later years: They supported 1) direct election of US senators, 2) lower tariff rates, 3) a graduated income tax, and 4) a new banking system regulated by the federal govt.